The Concept of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate Leadership in the Context of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia

Triwahyuningsiha, Absori Absorib, aDoctoral Program in Law  Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta Indonesia, and Lecturer Faculty of Law, Ahmad Dahlan University Indonesia, bDepartement of Law Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta Indonesia, Email: atriwahyuningsih@ppkn.uad.ac.idbabsorisaroni@gmail.com

Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate is a sovereign kingdom that has gained international recognition after the Giyanti Treaty of 1755. Leadership of the Sultanate surfaced as a problem when the Sultan issued the Sabda Raja and Dhawuh Raja which challenged paugeran (rules). The purpose of this study is to find the concept of leadership of the Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate in the Context of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. The method of this research is normative legal research completed with field research in the form of interviews with related parties. It used primary legal material in the form of laws and regulations, as well as secondary legal material in the form of relevant literature. This research uses a historical approach and statute approach and qualitative description analysis. The results show that the concept of Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat Sultanate leadership, which at the same time is the Governor of DIY in the NKRI Context, is to have the capacity to "restore", "strengthen", and "direct" the privileges of DIY through strengthening the values of the Sultanate that could support the concept of mixed government, monarchy, democracy and transcendence. Pages 1 to 12




Effects of STAD and Jigsaw Cooperative Learning Methods on Badminton Backhand Low Service Skill

Nguang Ung Sionga, Syed Kamaruzaman Bin Syed Alib, Hutkemric, a,b,cFaculty of Education, University of Malaya, Email: apmd170014@siswa.um.edu.mybsyed@um.edu.mychutkemri@um.edu.my

This study is conducted to study the effects of STAD and Jigsaw cooperative learning methods on the learning of Badminton Backhand low service skill in secondary school Physical Education class for Form One pupils. This study uses quasi-experiment with intact sampling involving 2 experimental groups, namely STAD cooperative learning method (33 people) and Jigsaw (32 people) with one control group which is traditional teaching group (31 people). Experimental groups were taught using STAD cooperative learning method and Jigsaw which are teacher-centred, while the traditional teaching group was taught using the direct instructions method from a Physical Education teacher. Pre-tests are conducted in three groups before intervention programme is carried out. The intervention programme is carried out once a week for one hour in each learning session as provided in Secondary School Standard-Based Curriculum (KSSM). After conducting 4 sessions of intervention programme, post-test is carried out to collect data from three groups using different teaching and learning methods. One-way ANOVA is used to identify differences between groups whereas Paired Samples t-Test is used to identify differences between pre-test and post-test for each group in this study. Results show that STAD cooperative learning method and Jigsaw show better performances compared to control group in learning Backhand low service skill. In addition, STAD cooperative learning method and Jigsaw also show better improvements compared to the control group in learning Backhand low service skill in Form One Physical Education classes that use Secondary School Standard-Based Curriculum (KSSM).  Pages 13 to 30




Readiness and Understanding of Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Lecturers in the Integration of Industrial Revolution 4.0

KHutkemri Zulnaidia, Mohamad Zuber Abd Majidb, aFaculty of Education, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, bFaculty of Education, National University of Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Malaysia, Email: ahutkemri@um.edu.mybzuber.abdul90@gmail.com

This study aims to determine the readiness and understanding of Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) lecturers in the implementation of Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR4.0). A total of 203 TVET lecturers in Malaysia were involved in this study, which also used descriptive and inferential statistics. Findings reveal a high level of readiness, understanding and implementation of IR 4.0 amongst the TVET lecturers. A significant relationship likewise exists amongst readiness, understanding and implementation of IR4.0. Findings also show that the TVET lecturers’ understanding is a mediator of the relationship between readiness and implementation of IR4.0. Lastly, results imply that the lecturers can further enhance their effort in implementing IR4.0 to achieve the Mission of 2020. Pages 31 to 43




Re-Streamlining the Capitalist’s World History on Political Economy Thought

Mohd Syakir Mohd Rosdia*, Richard Jacksonb, aCenter for Islamic Development Management Studies, 11800 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, bNational Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Otago, New Zealand, Email: a*mohdsyakirmohdrosdi@gmail.com/mohdsyakir@usm.my

The aim of this study is to examine the history of the world from the perspective of the political economy.  The focus  of  this  study  is  to  streamline  the  history  of  political economy's scholarship in relation to capitalism. Political economy is a field that is very challenging for many scholars to understand. It falls between the science of political economy and the science of economics and politics as separate disciplines. Discussion in this field can be complicated when many scholars from various backgrounds contribute their ideas. In relation to this, there appears to be two problems. Firstly, the author wondered when research began in the field of the political economy, and whether the early scholars of political economy where from the economic circle or from the political circle? Secondly, as many scholars built opposing frameworks of understanding in political economy, who was recognised as the accurate scholars in the field? Based on a study of documents and content analysis, this paper will re-streamline the history of the political economy. From this, political  economy  can  be  seen  as  a  field  closely aligned with ideology. It can be formed from the capitalist ideology, namely that of Smith and Ricardo,  or  from  the  communist  ideology,  namely  Marxism.  From  scholarly discussion  on  political  economy  in  capitalism,  the  author  established  that  the  first country to discuss political economy was France in the 16th Century. Following that, the idea was  discussed in  Spain,  Scotland,  Britain,  Italy,  the United  Kingdom,  Austria, Norway, and then by American scholars. Pages 44 to 60




Attitude, Subjective Norm, and Perceived Behavioural Control as Determinant of Hibah Giving Intent in Malaysia

Nadzirah Bt Mohd Saida, Hafizah Binti Zainalb, Noormariana Binti Mohd Dinc, Siti Afiqah Binti Zainuddind, Tahirah Binti Abdullahe, ac,d,eFaculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, bZakat Kedah International Research Centre, Email: a*nadzirah.ms@umk.edu.my

The beneficiates of hibah can facilitate estate planning in Muslim society during their lifetime. In Malaysia, the level of awareness for hibah is considered to be weak and the research regarding hibah was limited. Therefore, this research is to identify Malaysian Muslim behaviour regarding hibah. The framework in this study was constructed by the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) which consists of three independent variables: attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control. Intention to give hibah is the dependent variable. This research carried out a quantitative approach by collecting 500 responses from Muslim society in Malaysia. 282 was valid for data analysis. The findings of this study indicate a need for greater awareness in relation to the policies and governance of hibah institutions. Furthermore, aggressive promotion from hibah institutions can create attention in Muslim community about the vital importance of hibah. Pages 61 to 70




Waqf Efficiency: CRS, VRS and Malmquist Total Factor Productivity Index via Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)

Hazriah Hasana*, Nur Farahiah Azmib, Nik Noorhazila Nik Mudc, Ismail Ahmadd, aPhD. Senior Lecturer of Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK), bTutor, Faculty of Entreprenuership and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, cLecturer, Faculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, dProfessor, PhD. Faculty of Business Management, Universiti Teknologi MARA Shah Alam, Email: a*hazriah.h@umk.edu.my

Waqf or Islamic endowment is established from the notion of religious and economic duty of a Muslim brother towards his worldly affairs and life hereafter. A stronger Waqf system would not only complete the equation for a comprehensive Islamic financial system that supports a more equitable distribution of wealth to ensure justice, but would also become the user of the Islamic financial services particularly in the management and investment of the Waqf funds. This study aimed to measure efficiency scores on two states of Kelantan and Penang that managed Waqf funds by its State Islamic Religion Councils (SIRCs). Efficiency can best be measured by Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). In measuring the technical efficiency score of each state, we need to have information on the input and output of their operation by which we can compute a dynamic analysis according to the consecutive years begin at 2008 to 2010. From the results, we also compare between both scales of analysis in its constant return to scale (CRS) and variable return to scale (VRS) in order to evaluate its impact on the size of the firm towards its efficiency scores. In VRS DEA analysis, we can see whether the scale operation increases return to scale, decreases return to scale or remains stagnant. Malmquist index in DEA analysis was used to compare between the two states precisely. The result that we run using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) has shown only one state, namely Penang state, that operated at the full score (the benchmark) of efficiency, whereas Kelantan is far from fully efficient. Pages 71 to 83




The Meaning of Political Economy: Revisiting a Definition toward the Meaning of the New Political Economy

Mohd Syakir Mohd Rosdia*, Richard Jacksonb, aCenter for Islamic Development Management Studies, 11800 Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia, bNational Centre for Peace and Conflict Studies, University of Otago, New Zealand, Email: a*mohdsyakirmohdrosdi@gmail.com/mohdsyakir@usm.my

The aim of this article is to examine the meaning of political economy. Although it is clearly  defined,  scholars  throughout  history  have  been  challenged  to  distinguish the science of political economy and the sciences of economics and politics as separate disciplines. There are two problems. Firstly, we need to recognize accurately the scholars in political economy. Secondly, there has been a clash of ideas as many scholars built a framework of understanding in political economy. Many scholars mixed their ideas to build a specific framework of meaning of political economy. Some scholars approached political economy from an economic perspective, others from a political perspective. Based on a literature review and textual analysis, this paper will re-evaluate the meaning of political economy that recognises the need to focus on both the definition and the history of the field. It can be difficult to recognize the contribution of economic scholars such as Smith and Ricardo or political scholars such as Marx in the field of political economy. However, it has been established that they contributed to an ideology that developed the understanding of classical political economy. Adjusting for a political scholars’ perspective and economical scholars’ perspective, the pathway from the classical political economy into the new political economy is still to infer the meaning of political economy. Pages 84 to 104




 Consumer Complaining Behaviour towards Public Services: Using Structural Equation Modelling (SEM)

Nursalihah Ahmad-Rastona*, Zainol Mustafab, Nur Riza Mohd Suradic, a,b,cFaculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Email: a*nursalihah.ar@umk.edu.my

This study aims to investigate the influence of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control on the behaviour of consumer complaining through behavioural intention towards public services. This study used a cross-sectional design and a random sampling method was employed. Complete data was collected from 241 respondents. Data were analysed using SPSS version 22.0 and AMOS version 18.0 for structural equation modelling. Findings of this study showed that attitudes towards complaining, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control have a significant effect on consumer complaining behaviours. Among the significant components of behaviours by complainants, ‘write a complaint’ has the most significant influence on consumers’ behaviours towards public services. The public organization should provide interpersonal communication training to their employees to enhance their interaction skill with customers. Pages 105 to 118




Factors Affecting the Attitude of Social Workers Helping Children with Autism

Nguyen Thi Thoaa, aDepartment of Psychology, University of Labor and Social Affairs (ULSA2), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, Email: athoant@ldxh.edu.vn

Research has shown that there is a relationship between the educational background of social workers and their attitude towards working with children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). There is also a relationship between their income level and emotion while working with these children. Lack of professional knowledge among social workers leads to challenges and negative emotions which affects the quality of their support activities. The current study aims at determining whether training to improve social workers’ skills to deliver autism intervention can enhance their positive attitudes. The paper also investigates influencing factors, their correlation to and impact on social workers' attitudes toward children with ASD. The study was conducted from July 2018 to April 2019 on 402 social workers who provided intervention for autistic children at a number of social protection centres and specialised schools in Ho Chi Minh City. The post-training results revealed that participants achieved higher level of positivity in their working attitudes. These findings have significant implications for training institutions, managers, policy makers, psychologists, social workers, and autistic children. Pages 119 to 134




 Visual Style Transformation of Wayang Topeng Malang as Urban Toy Design Inspiration

Dimas Rifqi Novicaa*, Andy Pramonob, Joko Samodrac, Mitra Istiar Wardhanad, Ima Kusumawati Hidayate, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*dimas.novica.fs@um.ac.id

Wayang Topeng Malang (Malang Mask Puppet) is one of the traditional arts from Malang, East Java, Indonesia that nearly vanished because the majority of adolescents in Malang do not recognise it. Adolescent in Indonesia often find it difficult to learn the traditional arts because of the communication does not match with their interest. They prefer popular cultures that are more exciting and urban toys. Urban toys have a high appeal value because it has a unique concept and is often produced in limited quantities. This research will transform Wayang Topeng Malang’s visual style as a design inspiration for the urban toy. Wayang Topeng Malang’s and urban toys visual style examined with ATUMICS (Artefact, Technique, Utility, Material, Icon, Concept, and Shape) method to obtain an alternative drawing sketch for urban toys character design. This design is expected to develop further into an urban toy that will reintroduce traditional culture into a type of pop culture that is more appealing to the target audience in order to maintain traditional culture. Pages 135 to 146




Comparing the Effectiveness of Student-Centred Learning (SCL) Over Teacher-Centred Learning (TCL) of Economic Subjects in a Private University in Sarawak

Lau, Hieng Soona, aSchool of Business and Management, University College of Technology, Sibu, Malaysia, Email: alau.hs@ucts.edu.my

The main purpose of this research is to compare the effectiveness of the Student Centred Learning (SCL) over the Teacher-Centred Learning (TCL), which has been implemented to teach the economic subjects at a private university in Sarawak. The study shows that SCL has proven to be a more effective way in students’ learning, imparting knowledge and skills as well as attribute-internalisation to learners as compared to the TCL.  The resources at the private university are suitable for the SCL to be implemented from the perspective of students with a mean of 2.76, although certain aspects need to be improved. The research shows that the SCL has been efficiently implemented for the economic subjects but the accessibility of internet and library arrangement systems need to be upgraded. Independent T-test shows that there were significant differences in the effectiveness of SCL over TCI in terms of students’ learning, skill acquisition and internalisation of attributes respectively between the microeconomics and macroeconomics. It seems that SCL is more effective in teaching the macroeconomics than the micro-economics as the former has higher respective means than the latter. The research also indicates that all the critical success factors are significant and very significant for implementing the SCL. SCL could provide a very good pedagogy of teaching and learning, but is not the panacea to solve all problems related to pedagogical practices.  Perhaps, lecturers could adopt the mixed methodology but more tilted to the student-centred teaching and learning. The extent of it depends on the needs of the topics and more importantly the learners’ learning styles or needs. Pages 147 to 160




 Impact Satisfaction Factors of Ecotourism for Sustainable Tourism Business and Management

Noraini Abdullaha*, Kalai Arasi Mb, Thavamalar Rc, Suhaimi Sallehd, a,bFaculty of Science and Natural Resources, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, cCentre of Postgraduate Studies, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, dFaculty of Humanities, Arts and Heritage, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Email: a*noraini@ums.edu.my

In almost all real-world problems, consideration of multiple-criteria decisions requires the decision maker to make constructive decisions to obtain the desirable outcomes. A multiple-criteria decision making tool is the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) which is frequently used in most applications involving decision making. Since Sabah is well known for its natural and rich resources, ecotourism has a significant potential to enhance the tourism industry. This paper aims to determine the satisfaction factors of tourists visiting Sabah and specifically in the ecotourism industry. The four-step modelling procedure for a decision model using AHP is introduced. It includes the pairwise comparison table, building of the normalised matrix, weightage determination, and finally, the consistency ratio of the overall main criteria. The ranking of the main and sub-criteria are then made so that the best main and sub-criteria related to tourist satisfaction are identified. The results showed that the top criteria preferred by tourists for eco-tourism is safety, followed by benefits, activities, services and finally destination. The most strongly preferred sub-criteria for destination is ‘interest’, for benefit is ‘relaxing and fulfilling’, for activities is ‘experiencing nature and beautiful scenery’, for safety is ‘concerned personal Safety and security’, and for service is ‘on time service to tourists’. Pages 161 to 177




Green Accounting in Achieving Higher Corporate Profitability and Sustainability in Ready Made Garment Industry in Bangladesh: A Conceptual Analysis

Tapash Kumar Duttaa*, Valliappan Rajub, Rezian-Na Muhammed Kassimc, a,bLimkokwing University of Creative and Innovation, Malaysia, cUniversiti Teknologi MARA, Selangor, Malaysia, Email: a*duttatanni@yahoo.com

The purpose of this study is to reveal the conceptual analysis on how green accounting helps to improve the environmental performance, control cost, and provide a motivation to invest in safe technologies in terms of product mix, product retention, and product pricing within the readymade industry in Bangladesh. This conceptual paper also reveals the importance of the green accounting field which is to communicate actual or potential costs of a company or the national economy due to impact on the environment. In  addition,  it  offers  a  base  for  future  research  in  green  accounting  practice  to  help  create  awareness  among  people  in  the corporate  sector  for  achieving  long-term  benefits  for  companies  who are  environmentally  involved. Thus, this study attempted to link the gap between the green accounting issues related to corporate profitability and sustainability and to develop a conceptual framework. On the other hand, it  fosters social  interest  and  establishes  the  contribution  of  developing  countries  towards  global  environmental  commitment  and  protection  for  sustaining  green  global  environment. Pages 178 to 187




Investigating Student Attitudes and Cultural Origins towards Using Technology as a Learning Aid at a Saudi University

Safyah Saleh Aldayela*, aPrincess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Saudi Arabia, Email: asafiy.mhm@gmail.com

In contemporary education, technology is of central importance to learning. Universities often use Web 2.0 technologies as they are able to enhance the education experience of their students, who have grown up in a digital environment. Although Web 2.0 technologies are employed by universities across the world, they have been somewhat under-utilised at Saudi universities, particularly in the case of improving the educational experience for female students at Princess Nourah University (Alebaikan, 2010). The character of Saudi Arabian society is conservative and tribal, which may impact on families’ inclination to give technological access to female students (Alhareth, 2014). This research paper’s objective is to investigate the viewpoints of students towards facilitating Wiki technology as a means of learning, and to put into context the cultural ideas of female students in Saudi Arabia regarding learning through Wiki technology. This aim was realised through the use of a case study, which was conducted over six weeks through a mixed-method approach. The approach involved questionnaires before and after the study period, and subsequent interviews. Following triangulation, the results revealed emphatically that from the 20 students involved in the study, five definitely considered that their family’s acceptance of the use of technology had affected how they regarded technology themselves. It was also revealed in the results that out of 83 students, 64 felt positively about Wiki after using it. This was a very informative finding about students who, before working online, had declared that they had felt shy in a classroom environment. Shyness was considered to have been reduced by Wiki by seven out of the 20 students, particularly because it enabled students to enjoy a degree of anonymity. Pages 188 to 200




A Systematic Literature Review on Business Model Innovation: Industrial, Methodology & Positioning Gaps

Siti Som Husina, Anis Amira Ab Rahmanb*, Dzulkifli Mukhtarc, Noorshella Che Nawid, a,b,c,dFaculty of Entrepreneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia, Email: b*anisamira@umk.edu.my

The objective of this paper is to explore the current trend on the business model innovation (BMI) by the positioning of knowledge to reveal the gaps in the methodology and to suggest changes for future research.  A systematic literature review approach was adopted with thematic analysis and was conducted on 100 articles from different industry.  The review shows that this topic has been dominated by quantitative method compared to qualitative and mix-method, and most of the study has positioned this topic into innovation fields compared to strategic entrepreneurship.  The understanding of this concept is in its early stages and is highly fragmented. This study attempts to consolidate this fragmented knowledge by revealing the positioning of the business model innovation, whether in innovation and strategic entrepreneurship fields and the gaps of the methodology in the previous literature. It also points out gaps in the research and highlights new directions for future research. Pages 201 to 220




Impact of Operating Performance and Dividends on Stock Prices: A Comparative Study on a Sample of Private Banks in Iraq

Kafaa Ali Alborgeefa*, Fadhil Abbas Dawoodb, Mohammed Hasan Abdul-Ameerc, aLecturer, Department of Business Administration , Faculty of  Administration and Economics ,Mustansiriyah University, Financial Management, AL-Bonoog Street, Baghdad – Iraq, bAssistant Lecturer, Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research, Department of Finance, Banking Management, Baghdad – Iraq, cAssistant Lecturer, Ministry of Higher Education & Scientific Research, Department of Finance, Taxes Management, Baghdad – Iraq, Email: a*kafaali@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

The Objectives of this research is Prove the impact of both operational performance variables and dividend decisions on the stock prices of banks. The research sample included two Iraqi private banks listed on the Iraqi Stock Exchange, namely United Investment Bank and Gulf Commercial Bank. The data of the sample banks were examined for the period from 2010 to 2017. In order to obtain the results, the statistical analysis program (SPSS) was used to show the relationship between the research variables. The results showed that the sub-variables used to measure the operational performance of the bank and the dividend indices have a positive relationship with the stock prices. Pages 221 to 235




Transformational Leadership on Employee Performance in Post-Acquisition of a Company

Intan Ratnawatia, Augusty Tae Ferdinandb, Suharnomoc, a,b,cManagement Department, Diponegoro University,

The importance of human factors and the challenges posed by post-acquisition integration process has become an issue, as these factors implicate post-acquisition performance to achieve successful integration. The objective of this study was to analyse the influence of transformational leadership on the performance of post-acquisition employees through intervening variable of readiness for change and critical change adaptability. Previous research has not specifically explored these variables. This study analysed samples of four post acquisition companies in Indonesia consisting of two manufacturing companies and two service companies. The results revealed that transformational leadership affects readiness to change; readiness to change affects adaptability of critical change; transformational leadership affects the ability to adapt to critical change, and adaptability of critical change affects the performance of post-acquisition employees. Pages 236 to 251




EFL Learners’ Self-regulated Learning in a Technology-Mediated Language Learning Setting

Yusup Supriyonoa, Ali Saukahb, M. Adnan Latiefc, Utami Widiatid, Nunung Suryatie, aUniversitas Siliwangi, b,c,d,eUniversitas Negeri Malang, Email: ayusupsupriyono@unsil.ac.idbalisaukah@yahoo.comca.adnanlatief@gmail.comdutami.widiati.fs@um.ac.idenunung_suryati@yahoo.com

This study is aimed at investigating self-regulated learning when technology-mediated learning occurs in the EFL classroom. Online Likert-scale questions by Lai and Gu, (2011) and technology acceptance model by Fred Davis & Venkatesh (1996) were administered to 102 EFL learners of a higher education institution in Indonesia to acquire data of self-regulated learning and the participants’ technology acceptance. Using correlation analysis, it is revealed that there is significant correlation between technology acceptance and self-regulated learning and there are variations of use of technology on the aspects of self-regulated learning in terms of goal commitment, metacognitive, affective, social, resource, and culture. This study is expected to contribute to the development of theories about integration of technology into language learning and self-regulatory skills in education field. Pages 270 to 285




 Socio-Economic Profile and Academic Achievement as Influence on Off-Campus Performance among Pre-Service Teachers at the Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College

Suharto A. Luddina, Rasul H. Amlihb, Mastika A. Amlihc, Shirley H. Sabald, Junior K. Ahamade, a,b,c,d,eTawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, Philippines, Email: brasamlih35@gmail.comcimastikaam@yahoo.comdshirleyhajimsabal@yahoo.comeahamadjuniork@gmail.com,

This descriptive educational research is geared towards the improvement of the academic achievements and the quality of off-campus performance among pre-service teachers within various disciplines at not only at the Agricultural Education department in Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College, but in Bongao II district. These teachers are practicing teaching in any level and could assist the school administration, concerned supervisors, the teachers and the students or pupils, to include the educational researchers in the measure for up-lift in quality to benefit the educational leadership in the National Elementary and Secondary Education department of the concerned country. It would give performance feedback to teachers to effectively enhance the academic achievement and the off-campus performance as well as related teaching productivity. The findings claimed that the level of academic achievement described “satisfactory” as a maximum GPA of 1.25 (excellent) and minimum GPA of 2.35 was described as moderate satisfactory. The academic achievement among the Pre-service teachers was manifested by the low SD value statistically disclosed homogeneous performance. Pages 286 to 297




Virtual Classroom Learning Environments Support K-12 Education Curriculum among Senior High Students

Junior K. Ahamada, Rasul H. Amlihb, Mastika A. Amlihc, Shirley H. Sabald, a,b,c,dTawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, Philippines, Email: aahamadjuniork@gmail.combrasamlih35@gmail.comcimastikaam@yahoo.comdshirleyhajimsabal@yahoo.com ,

This study aimed to assess the Virtual Classroom Learning Environment Management Support Facilities among Senior High Students at the Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College in Bongao Municipality in Tawi-Tawi and the implementation readiness of K-12 Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum. This study was conducted at the Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College senior High students in the same institution. The conduct of the study was the descriptive survey technique utilising the accessibility of the researchers based on the ethics of research. A simple random sampling procedure was used in selecting the respondents from the total population. This was used in order to avoid biases in the selection processes. Findings revealed that the level of computer literacy was reported as strongly agreed; the level of teaching competency with respect to all indicators was very satisfactory; and there was no significant influence of the computer literacy on the level of teaching competencies with respect planning, teaching methods and evaluation, communication with the learners and learning reinforcement and professional standards. However, there was a significant influence of the computer literacy on teaching competency in relation to instructional strategies, techniques and methods. Furthermore, the school administrator should have the courage to fully implement and give full support in the implementation of the in-service training program in order to improve teachers’ career advancement, potential and capability. Pages 298 to 310




Chavacano as a Medium of Instruction: Its Implications for the Reading Levels of English in Elementary School Pupils

Analyn D. Saavedraa, aWestern Mindanao State University, Zamboanga City, Philippines, Email: aanalyn.saavedra@yahoo.com,

This study aimed to determine the impact of Chavacano as a medium of instruction of reading skills in English of grade 3 Chavacano-speaker pupils. Specifically, it sought to find out the pupils’ performance in oral and silent reading. This research made use of the Descriptive Quantitative Research Design. The supplied answers of the respondents in the guided questions are used as qualitative data. The quantitative part was taken from the respondents’ scores on the oral and silent passages adapted from the Phil-IRI (Morris and Gunning, 2008). Based on the findings of this study it is concluded that one of the factors that influenced the students’ poor performance in reading in English is their negative perception and views about their L1 Chavacano. Their English teachers’ role could be one of the causes of this non-valorisation of their L1 in the English classroom. English teachers, to date, are still viewing the hegemony of the English language over Chavacano, hence, the existence of the multilingual policy which contradicts the principles set forth in the mother-tongue education law as mandated for Grade 1 to Grade 3 curriculum levels. Pages 311 to 320




Green Consumption Behaviour in Indonesia

Bayu Retnoa, Nana Nawasiahb, Sri Widyastutic, Nurul Hilmiyahd*, M. Nuruddin Subhane, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Economic and Business, Universitas Pancasila, Indonesia, Email: d*nurulhilmiyah@univpancasila.ac.id

Green products are not widely marketed in Indonesia because manufacturers are less aware of the positive impacts of green products and lack of consumer demand for green products. Likewise, the level of consumer awareness in Indonesia does not reveal concern about the intimate aspects of nature on the product used. As an impact, many manufacturers do not release green products. Thus, the importance of this study is to analyse green consumption because the value of green consumption affects the behaviour of green consumption. This study is an explanatory research paper with quantitative analysis methods. The sampling technique  used  was purposive sampling. The sample of this study is a green community consumer.  The result of this study shows a correlation between green consumption value and green consumption behaviour. The green consumption values have a correlation with green consumption behaviours.  The value of green consumption is able to enhance and shape the behaviour of green consumption among consumers of Indonesian green communities. By creating green consumption behaviour, the community is expected to know and care about natural environment issues and healthy living behaviour. Pages 321 to 333




Integration of Technology Education in Technical and Vocational Education Curricula; A Solution to Paucity of Skilled Workforce

Yousef A Aljemelya, aCollege of Education, Majmaah University 11952, Majmaah, Kingdom ofSaudi Arabia, Email: ay.aljemely@mu.edu.sa

This study aims to explore the integration of technology education in technical and vocational education (TVE) curricula. Both qualitative and quantitative  techniques were used in this study. Thus, the data was collected by semi-structured interviews and questionnaires from 179 teachers and administrators of TVTC in Saudi Arabia. The manual coding method was used to analyse qualitative data. The results revealed that the importance and implementation strategies of technology integration in technical and vocational education are completely known to stakeholders. In addition, the study found significant and strong relationships between mission, vision, resource availability, teacher preparation and teacher’s technology integration. The study merely focused on the implementation of technology education in Saudi Arabia. Therefore, in future this study can be replicated in context for other countries. Furthermore, the same framework can be used for comparing technology integration in technical and vocational education curricula of developed and developing countries. Pages 334 to 359




Local Revenue Contribution by the Tourism Policy

Biller Panjaitana, aUniversitas Sangga Buana (USB), Email: abiller175175@gmail.com

The aim of this research is to describe the influence of leadership  and   tourism policy implementation towards  local revenue at West Bandung Regency. The research method is Quantitative research and data was collected  by documentation, questionnaire, interview and observation. The dependent variable was local revenue, the independent variables were leadership and  tourism policy implementation . Data have been analysed  using Multiple Regression. The result of this research showed that leadership and  tourism policy implementation influence local revenue. The influence of leadership and  tourism policy implementation towards local revenue are  positive; it means that   a higher presence of leadership and the more tourism policies are implemented,  the  higher local revenue will be,   with a mean in real rank p < 0.01.  The proposed hypothesis is that leadership and  tourism policy implementation will influence local revenue. The result has shown that local revenue  is 0. 4570, or the grade variation of local revenue is 45,70 percent, depending on leadership and  tourism  policy implementation. 360 to 372




The Moderating Role of Religiosity to Determine the Influence of Halal Awareness and Emotional Marketing Strategy for Shariah based Banking in Indonesian

Nira Hariyatie Hartania*, Muhtadi Ridwanb, Nur asnawic, aFaculty of Business and Information Science, UCSI University Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, b,cState Islamic University Maulana Malik Ibrahim, Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*nirahartani1@gmail.com

The study  aims  investigate the influence of emotional marketing strategy and halal awareness factors on purchase behaviour of consumers towards Shariah based financial services among Indonesian consumers. The study was based on a construct to investigate the influence of independent variables on the dependent variable that is linked with Shariah based financial services. The population of the study was Indonesian consumers that are willing to avail Shariah based financial services provided by various banks. The study found that halal awareness has positive and significant influence towards purchase behaviour, but positive relationships have been observed  between emotional marketing strategy and purchase behaviour, but reported insignificant. The moderating effect of religiosity was examined to determine the purchase behaviour. The study suggests initiating effective marketing and awareness programs for consumers to avail interest free banking services. Pages 373 to 387




The Role of the Balanced Scorecard in Improving Organisational Performance: Field Study in Al-Diwaniyah Textile Factory

Taher Hameed Abbas Bahiaa, Hinwa Hussein Ahmedb, Afrah Raheem Idanc, a,b,cAl-Dewaniyah Technical Institute, Al- Furat Al-Awsat Technical University ,Iraq,

This study tries to show the role of the balanced scorecard in improving organisational performance by adopting financial and non-financial measurements to evaluate organisational performance. We live in a rapidly changing world and this makes performance a vital aspect for organisational success, goal achieving, survival and growth. Performance can be said to be a method of thinking, an integrated management system, and a strategic leadership tool. It is a tool to improve, drive and contribute to revealing weaknesses in organisational activities and treat them in a way suitable to the current trends, in order to make positive impact on performance. To achieve the objectives of this study, a questionnaire was adopted with 45 items related to study variables. The sample was 75 individuals. According to the purpose of the study, one main hypothesis was formulated using a group of statistical tools like SPSS v.24. The study set out a number of conclusions and relevant recommendations. Pages 388 to 414




Improvement of Productivity by Using Means of Work Study, Continuous Improvement, Muda Elimination, and ECRS in Electronics Part Manufacturing: A Case Study of BBB Co., Ltd

Piyachat Burawata, Rajamangala, University of Technology Thanyaburi, Pathumthani, Thailand, Email: apiyachat_b@rmutt.ac.th

The study aims to make the working process better and improve productivity by using the technique of work study, continuous improvement, Muda elimination, and ECRS in electronics part manufacturing, which was investigated from November 2018 to March 2019, from a case study of the technical training department of BBB Co., Ltd. The data and information were gathered from supervisors and managers, and the problems were analysed by means of brainstorming together with the Ishikawa diagram. In reference to the findings, it was presented that crucial problems of the technical training department occurred from a delayed process in printing, grading, scanning examination results and storing paper exams, waste of paper exam usage, messy area due to paper exam storage, and erroneous grading scores. Considering the examination process, the whole processing of examinations could be changed from using paper exams to using online exams via the website of a company or QR code. Regarding the grading process, the grading process could be changed from a manual to an online system, which is accurate and prompt, to present the score immediately. The online examination can reduce usage of paper and printing ink, scanning and waiting time, and storage area. In addition, employees can test by themselves anytime, which helps them not to worry about their work and may result in higher scores. The standard time of the examination process was reduced from 5,769,535 seconds to 4,683,005 seconds per 3,035 persons, with productivity growth accounting for 23.20 percent of improvement. Pages 415 to 431




Fostering a Creative Economy with Copyright Protection: “Weightless Economy” And Creativity-Based Sustainable Development

H. Ahmad M. Ramlia*, Ranti Fauza Mayanab*, Tisni Santikac, a,bLaw Faculty of Padjadjaran University, cLaw Faculty of Pasundan University, Email: a*ahmadmramli@yahoo.com,b*ranti_fauza@yahoo.comctisnisantika@yahoo.co.id

Globalisation and  technology development have brought creativity into necessity. Many countries place creativity as the main model of economic development. In this knowledge based economy era, creativity becomes the catalyst for development that millions of people across the world are making a living out of . Irina Bokova, The Director General of UNESCO, stated that the cultural and creative industries have capital worth US$2,250 billions,  nearly 30 million jobs worldwide and have become  major drivers of the economies of developed as well as developing countries. (Cultural Times, 2015). Copyright is  the branch of intellectual property with  a wider scope of protection, since it applies to every production in  literary, scientific and artistic works in all forms of expression concerning certain levels of originality.  Copyright proved to dominate the product of creative economy subsectors. As the part of creative economy upgrading, on October 16th 2014, the new Indonesia Copyright Law has been  enacted to provide an adequate legal instrument in order to sustain the sustainability and growth of creative economy. Another important consideration is that the simultaneity of law development and economic development is a compelling necessity for developing countries in order to transform the creative economic concept into factual creative industries.  Based on the relevance of creative economy in a nation’s development, this paper aims to identify the expanding protection of copyright law in protecting creativity as the trigger for creative economy, and how to transform the concept of creative economy into a real sector in the form of creative industries. Pages 432 to 443




Education Quality Management by Encouraging Wellbeing and Discouraging Inequality among Society

Andhyka Tyaz Nugrahaa*, Rubina Jabeenb, aSchool of Technology Management and Logistics, College of Business, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok, Malaysia, bFaculty of Business Administration, Iqra University, Karachi, Pakistan, Email: a*andhykasriwijaya@gmail.com

The objective of the study is to promote sustainable development goals through education quality management. The role of well-being and inequality was also considered. To attain the objective of this study, a survey was preferred. Survey questionnaires were distributed among the universities of Thailand. A total number of 382 survey questionnaires were used in the survey. Partial Least Square (PLS) was preferred to analyse the collected data. Findings proved that education quality management has a positive role to play in promoting sustainable development goals in Thailand. In addition, it is found that education quality management  plays a positive role  in enhancing well-being and decreasing inequality among the society, which ultimately positively affects  the promotion of sustainable development goals. An increase in well-being increases the sustainable development goals, however, an increase in inequality decreases the sustainable development goals. Therefore, the government of Thailand should focus on university education quality management to promote sustainable development goals by encouraging well-being and discouraging inequality among the society. Pages 444 to 458




Transformational Leadership and Affective Commitment to Change: The Roles of Readiness for Change and Type of University

Omar Hussein Waisya, Chong Chin Weib, a,bMultimedia University, Email: aomar.hussein@uod.acbcwchong@mmu.edu.my

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment to change through readiness for change. This paper also examines whether the type of university moderates the relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment to change in the Kurdistan Region. Design/methodology/approach - This paper mainly uses quantitative methods to explore the relationship between transformational leadership, readiness for change, and affective commitment to change. The data was gathered from 611 lecturers in 14 public and 11 private universities in the Kurdistan Region. SmartPLS3 was used to assess the measurement model and structural model. Findings - The results show a significant relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment to change. The results show also that readiness for change mediates the relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment to change. SmartPLS results show that the type of university had a moderate effect on the relationship between transformational leadership and affective commitment to change. Pages 459 to 482




Identifying and Ranking the Key Performance Drivers of Corporate Social Responsibility in Saudi Arabia

Raj Bahadur Sharmaa, aDepartment of Accounting, College of Business Administration Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a global governance mechanism. It is a code of conduct, regulations, trade rules are also considered as an ethical practice of a company towards social responsibility. It is a drive to increase the profitability and goodwill of the company. This main objective of the study is to identify the key performance drivers of the CSR practices in public as well as private sectors in Saudi Arabia. The study also recommends ranking or prioritising of the major identified activities and benefits of the same. It has further investigated the association between awareness of CSR and the profitability by CSR between private as well as public companies. However, the study concludes that there is a significant difference in awareness as well as profitability between private and public corporates with the CSR. The author concludes that enhancing profitability is one of the key drivers of CSR in private corporates, whereas legal compliance is the primary factor in public corporates in Saudi Arabia. The result reveals attracting customers and social integration as ultimate benefits of the ‘corporate social responsibility’ in Saudi Arabia. Pages 483 to 494




Furnaces Grilling Crockery Pots from the Sasanian Era in Light of the Results of the Excavations of Tel Abu Za’ar

Kadhim Jaber Salmana*, Abbas Zuwaid Mwanb, Dia Abdul Hassan Saffarc, a,bCollege of Arts - Department of Archeology, Babylon University, cGeneral Authority for Antiquities and Heritage, Email: a*gudea100@gmail.com

Furnaces are one of the great priorities that the ancient Iraqi people have sought to take care of since ancient times. The oldest furnace  dates back according to concrete physical evidence to the Neolithic period when man  realised, at that time, that the clay material that was abundantly available  in his natural environment and which can be converted to another material which is more solid and conservative  compared to the materials that he needed in his daily life, especially the liquid ones.  Such experience led man to conclude that the fragile clay material can be converted to a more solid material (pottery) when exposed to high temperatures. The accumulated experience that he, lead to him reaching an  important conclusion that this process, i.e. pottery, is carried out according to the control and gradual stages. Of course,  it was not an easy process  as it was complex, and the one who worked in it must  hold great practical experience in this aspect. Through time, the pottery industry had become more widespread than many other industries,  especially those which made stone or metal for easy manufacture. It became as such because of the speed of its preparation and its relatively cheap price as well as the availability of its primary material. On the other hand, the disadvantages of using pottery industries are embodied in its fragility and the difficulty of repairing it. So, on the benefits of pottery it use increased, and this naturally increased the spread of furnaces that made it. Pages 495 to 514




A Critical Discourse Analysis of Hillary Clinton's (2016) Waiver Speech

Qassim Abbas Dhayefa, Noor Shakir Fadhilb, a,bDepartment of English, the College of Education for Human Sciences, University of Babylon, Email: aqassimdhayf@gmail.combnooralhusseinawi@gmail.com

Discourse is a fundamental factor in all worldwide communication and is necessary for speakers to understand the language and  its use. In a political world, discourse is an important tool where one's words are the primary means of communicating visions and ideologies and ultimately making people act upon them. In the light of the upcoming American presidential election, it is interesting to place the discourses of Hillary Clinton in the critical discourse analysis framework because political speeches are highly constructed pieces of discourse. Thus, implicit patterns embedded in discourses are expected to be identified as they are written and performed for specific purposes. The waiver has been given little attention from other researchers as a notion of Critical Discourse Analysis. However, this paper is an effort to shed light on this linguistic obscurity. This paper attempts to illuminate it and provide a clear picture of this concept with waiver samples, as shown in Clinton's speeches with some statistical tools to support the paper's objectives. Hillary Clinton delivered an amazing and encouraging waiver speech to all audiences around the world after her loss in the U.S. presidential election on November 8, 2016. The current paper is a critical discourse analysis of Hillary Clinton's waiver speech. It aims to investigate how this concept is used in critical discourse analysis. Pages 515 to 532




Reading, Responding, and Writing Model to Teach Writing Hortatory Exposition Text in Bahasa Indonesian

Asep Nurjamina*, Yustika Nur Fajriahb, Lucky Rahayu Nurjaminc, a,b,cInstitut Pendidikan Indonesia Garut, Email: a*asep5nurjamin@gmail.com

The senior high school students’ ability in writing Bahasa Indonesia, especially writing hortatory exposition text, is still categorised as low. In accordance with the solution for the issue, Genre-based approach (GBA) in terms of reading, responding and writing (2RW) model would be applied. A mixed-method in terms of quasi-experiment and descriptive study related to content analysis was employed. Quasi-experimental was utilised to examine the effectiveness of 2RW usage in teaching writing hortatory exposition text. Hence, the qualitative research design in the form of descriptive analysis was utilised to analyse the students’ writing improvement instigated by the use of the 2RW model in three different school locations; rural, half, and urban areas. Moreover, this study reveals that 1) the 2RW model is categorised as effective model in teaching writing hortatory exposition text since the students’ score is growing in a post-test, 2) based on the learning output, 2RW is more effectively used in urban area since the highest scores are gained in that site and 3) the  genre shows the improvements of students’ capacity used in their texts involving generic structure and linguistic features of hortatory exposition (see Gerot & Wignel, 1994; Derewianka, 1997;  Emilia, 2011). Pages 533 to 540




The Mechanism of Enhancing the Design System in Environmental Preservation Advertisements

Nadia Khalil Ismaela*, Noor kareem Jabarb, a,bCentral University of Technology College of Applied Arts, Email: a*Inaadkais@yahoo.com

Through the study two researchers acquainted themselves with the designs of advertisements to preserve the environment and specifically the lack of care in the use of design systems promoting them in advertisements. The design system is a linking process that helps to arrange the elements and foundations, where it is a key entrance tool and is crucial to the declaration and in the method of reading and to the basics of strengthening. A research topic worthy of the study determines the problem of research by the following question (- What is the mechanism of the design system of advertisements to preserve the environment and what is the enhancement of its operation?) The objectives of the research include the following: The role of the design foundations as reinforcements of the design system within the advertisements.  On aspect of the research is how the theoretical framework of the mabahith,  was distributed on three topics, the first topic dealt with design enhancements, and the second, the system in printed design. And the third topic on the Declaration and the elements of the topography. The researchers reached the most important indicators that were developed by the theoretical framework and identified in the third chapter the procedures of research methodology based on the descriptive approach and the sample of research and research tools. Pages 541 to 561




The Reality of Technical Analysis Tools of DFM for the Period (2009 - 2018)

Sarah Amer Hassana, Sabah Rahim Mahdib, a,bCollege of Administration & Economics AL Muthanna University, Email: aSarahamer079@gmail.combSabbah.raheem1958@gmail.com

Technical analysis tools provide an opportunity for the investor to find out the future movement of the share price; accordingly, the investment decision is made in either buying and selling the share which allows the investor to hedge against the risks of price fluctuations. This is because investing in stocks is fraught with many risks, and what increases these risks is the diversity of options for the investor, the wrong investment decision leads to losses, and accumulation causes bankruptcy, so the investor resorts to the use of different approaches to predict the future of stock prices. One of the most important of these approaches is technical analysis and tools to find out the extent of the investor's reliance on these tools in making the investment decision or not. Pages 562 to 578




Sustainable Development in Local Government: A Lesson from Indonesia

Asropia, aNational Institute of Public Administration (Stia Lan Jakarta), Email: aasropi@stialan.ac.id

This research aims to describe the implementation of sustainable development in the city of Tangerang, Indonesia, and to investigate important factors influencing the performance of local governments in implementing developments of this type. Data for this case-study-based research was collected through document review and in-depth interviews, and transcripts and data were analysed using NVIVO version 10 software. The results show that, following the political reforms put in place in 1998, the sustainable development program implemented in Tangerang City has been very progressive. Tangerang’s success reflects synergy in three main aspects of sustainable development, namely, the economic, the social, and the environmental. The leadership, public participation and religion are found to be dominant factors determining the success of sustainable development. Pages 579 to 593



The Retention Strategy of Cooperative Business in Industrial Revolution Era 4.0

Wiwin Setianingsiha, Nurdiana Mulyatinib, Elin Herlinac, Mukhtar Abdul Kaderd, Anisa Lisarae, a,b,c,d,eFakultas Ekonomi Universitas Galuh Ciamis, Email: awiwinsetianingsih122@gmail.combdianamulya@ymail.comcelinherlina@unigal.ac.iddMwrd7380@gmail.comenisalisara01@gmail.com

Cooperatives, as economic institutions, which are based on community values are still very much in need to improve human welfare. The existence of cooperatives has diminished over time however. There are many factors that have caused a reduction in the number of active Indonesian cooperatives: both internal and external factors. In line with this, efforts to study cooperatives which until recently were still actively participants in the society need to be conducted to determine patterns and strategies for the continuity of cooperatives so that these patterns and strategies can be used to increase the survival of other cooperative businesses. This research was carried out using a phenomenological research method. The data sources of this study are three types of cooperatives referred to by the Department of Cooperatives and Small-Medium Enterprises and Trade in Ciamis Regency, West Java. The data of this study were collected using observation, interview, and documentation techniques. The results of the study were processed using a SWOT data analysis technique. This study concludes that the main strategies cooperative business strategies that maintain business continuity include development strategies in management, human resources development, capital improvement, and business type development strategies. Pages 594 to 608

An Analysis of Workshop Program Implementation and Competency Improvement for Adult Education Facilitators in Indonesia

Ach. Rasyada*, Bambang Budi Wiyonob, Rezka Arina Rahmac, a,cNon Formal Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, bFaculty of Education, Universitas Negeri Malang, Indonesia, Email: a*ach.rasyad.fip@um.ac.idbbambang.budi.fip@um.ac.idcrezka.rahma.fip@um.ac.id

Learning facilitators play a strategic role in improving quality and service of education programs based on the dynamic and development of societal learning demands. It is important, therefore, to have professional and competent learning facilitators who maintain conversancy with this dynamic and evolving development. This research aims to describe and analyze: (1) the implementation of workshop programs for learning facilitators; and (2) the improvement of learning facilitator competency before and after attending workshops. This research is the pioneer in this field in its discussion of learning facilitators or non-formal educator, competency in Indonesia. A quantitative approach is used. The population of the research are learning facilitators in Malang City who attend the workshop detailed in this research, which amounted to 500 participants. Sampling technique used was simple random sampling with Slovin Formula. The condequent result sample was 131 persons comprising 90 men and 41 women with varying education backgrounds. Data are collected with the use of such research techniques as questionnaire, test, observation and documentation. The collected data are analyzed with descriptive statistic and t-test. Results of the research are presented as follows: (1) Workshop implementation for learning facilitators has entered into good category with mean score of 3.09; and (2) Learning facilitator competency has been improved by 17.3% after attending the workshop. Competency improvement among learning facilitators is found to be affected by factors such as education level, teaching experience, and participation in training & education. Pages 609 to 623

Community Mediators in Malaysia: Profile and Analyses on their Roles and Challenges

Wan, Puspa Melatia, aSenior Lecturer. SEGi University, Malaysia, Email: awanpuspa@segi.edu.my

Community mediation is a powerful mechanism to manage conflict in a multiracial society. Various efforts have been made in Malaysia to improve communal relationships including the training of community leaders as community mediators. Though there have been reports on the growing numbers of trained mediators, not much is known about their profiles and experiences. In the proposed research, selected community leaders would undergo a four-phase training for mindset setting, skill learning and confidence building and be invited to attend case conferences as refresher courses over time and as an opportunity to discuss any stumbling blocks in ongoing case management. Based on a self-administered survey with 139 trained mediators, the profile of the community mediators was outlined and the challenges that they faced were discussed at agency, interpersonal and societal levels. The findings shed light on the current state of affairs of Malaysian community mediators in addition to providing input that would help community mediators in their role in the context of managing communal conflicts. Pages 624 to 643

Islamic Spiritual Approach in Developing a Positive Mindset

Hanin Hamjah, Sa, Mohd Arifin, S.N.Ab, Ismail, Zc, Mastor, K.Ad, Mohamad Rasit, Re, Ab. Rahman, Zaizulf, a,b,c,eCentre for Human and Community Well-being, Faculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, dCentre for Liberal Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, fFaculty of Islamic Studies, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Email: asalhanin@ukm.edu.mybnazratulain92@gmail.comczainab@ukm.edu.mydkam2000@ukm.edu.myerosmawati@ukm.edu.myfzaizul@ukm.edu.my

Various emotional problems are faced by people in today’s society such as anger and hatred. Many studies have proven that a spiritual approach in counselling is effective and can resolve client problems. One of such spiritual approaches is tazkiyat al-nafs which is a process of purifying the soul. Hence, the objective of this paper is to examine the tazkiyat al-nafs approach in counselling and analyse its effect on the clients’ minds based on a survey with 58 counsellors. The results indicated that the counsellors applied tazkiyat al-nafs approach in counselling and found resultant positive effects on the clients’ minds. The clients were convinced that every test in life has an underlying wisdom leading them to be morecalm and think positively. It can be concluded that the tazkiyat al-nafs approach in counselling has positive effect on the clients’ minds whereby they can overcome problems by using this unique novel Islamic-based soul purification approach. Pages 644 to 665

Contribution of Entrepreneurship Orientation to the Performance of SME Tourist Destinations in Bali Indonesia

Ida Bagus Gede Udiyanaa, Ida Ayu Nyoman Saskarab, I Gusti Ayu Wimbac, I Gusti Bagus Wiksuanad, Yoris Adi Marettae, Wayan Arya Paramartaf, Ni Putu Wiwin Setyarig, a,fSTIMI Handayani Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, b,d,gUniversitas Udayana Denpasar, Bali, Indonesia, cUniversitas Hindu Indonesia, Bali, eUniversitas Negeri Semarang, Indonesia, Email: agde_udiyana@yahoo.co.idbsaskara@unud.ac.idcigawimba197@gmail.comdigb.wiksuana@yahoo.comeyoris@mail.unnes.ac.idfaryaajus@gmail.comgwiwin.setyari@unud.ac.id

This study aims to find out the role of the dynamic business environment and the support of the local government in bridging the influence of entrepreneurial orientation on the performance of SME entrepreneurs, especially wood-based entrepreneurs in tourist destinations (DTW). The sample in this study was a respondent group of 200. Determination of the sample was carried out through un-stratified random proportional sampling for each group of companies. The research objectives were analyzed using Smart PLS-30. The results show that the business environment perfectly mediates the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance at an alpha level of 5%. While the support of the local government has a positive and significant mediating effect of entrepreneurial orientation on business performance at an error rate of 10%, direct entrepreneurial orientation has no significant effect on business performance. Pages 666 to 680

Cultural Identity among Iraqi Immigrants: Four Voices and Different Opinions

Basim S. Albuhamdana*, Elizabeth M. Anthonyb, Rana M. Swainc, a,bCentre for Languages Studies Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia Johor, Malaysia, cGeneral directorate of education in Thi-Qar, Iraq, Email: a*Basimsaadoon1978@gmail.com

The present study portrays the cultural identity within the developing culture of Iraqi immigrants in the United States and the United Kingdom, aside from their native culture, and how they develop their life within the foreign societies. It is an endeavour to individually convey the voices and opinions of four Iraqi immigrants who immigrated to the Unites States and the United Kingdom when they were at the ages of five years, thirty-one years, twenty- six, and twenty- seven years in order to explain the problems of their cultural identity and belonging. For them, what does it mean to be Iraqi in the UK/USA and live between two cultures that pull in opposite directions? How is their identity constructed and where do they belong? Are they Iraqis, Americans/ British or in- between? The current study aims to address such issues utilizing Homi K. Bhabha, Hall, Brubaker and Cooper, and others. The study employed a semi-structured interview which yielded findings that the immigrants underwent the consequences of the two-culture impact and this is clearly reflective of their mixed identity. Pages 681 to 689

Fundamental and Technical Analysis in the Context of Sustainable Development for the Dubai Financial Market (2008 – 2017)

Sabbah Raheem Mahdia, Aqeel Hameed Jaberb, Saoud Chayed Mashkourc*, aAl-Muthanna University-Department of Financing Sciences -  Iraq, b,cAl-Muthanna University-Department of Accounting -  Iraq, Email: c*Saoudmashkour@gmail.com

The research aims to develop specific tools for analyzing the financial market conditions, including the Dubai Securities Market, which was prepared for the period 2008-2017 to support sustainable development. The main analysis focuses on the study of economic changes, political and security conditions, financial conditions and their impact on market prices, such as economic growth, level of operation and changes in interest rates. The basic analysis is concerned with studying the conditions of the industry and companies. It is based on the study and analysis of economic data and information and the financial statements of the companies that form the basis for forecasting future prices and profits. The technical analysis focuses on the trends of prices and the volume of trading and deviations that occurred in these prices or profits achieved by companies operating in the market, and technical analysis to study the performance of the market in the past period with the aim of reaching the investments sought in the future. Pages 690 to 709

The Relationship Between Achievement Goals and Scientific Achievement: The Mediating Role of Learning Approaches

Fonny Hutagalunga, Hutkemri Zulnaidib, Wong Su Leec, Chew Fong Pengd, Noor Aishah Roslie, a,b,c,d,eFaculty of Education, University Malaya, Malaysia, Email: afonny@um.edu.my, bhutkemri@um.edu.my, cwongsulee@yahoo.com, dfpchew@um.edu.my, enoraishahr@um.edu.my

This research investigates the effects of achievement goals on academic motivation and the performance in science of upper secondary school students. Learning approaches and achievement goal orientations are among the academic motivation constructs. This research designed a quantitative correlation study to relate and model these factors of scientific achievement. A total of 350 students comprised the sample in the present study. SPSS and Smart PLS software were used to collect and analyse the data. Results indicate that learning approaches and goal orientation substantially affected students’ achievement in science. Moreover, mediation roles were identified and results indicated that goal orientation considerably affected achievement in science via a deep approach. Thus, instructional strategies should be designed by teachers and educators through the incorporation of students’ epistemological and motivational beliefs and various techniques in learning for effective science education. Pages 732 to 752

Determinants of Sustainability Reporting under a Global Reporting Initiative:  Empirical Evidence from Iraq

Zahra Hasan Oleiwia*, Nidhal Mohammed Ridha Mohsinb, Ibtihaj I Yaqoobc, a,b,cAccounting Department, Faculty of Administration and Economics, Mustansiriyah University, Baghdad, Iraq, Email: a*zahra.alamiri65@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

The aim of this paper is to reveal the determinants that affect the level of reporting of sustainability accounting in its economic, social, environmental and governance dimensions from the perspective of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI.G4). The study adopts the method of analysing the content of the annual financial reports (2016 - 2017) for all sectors operating in the Iraq Stock Exchange (8) and by (100) companies. The results show that there is  variation in the level of reporting of deportation as well as a weakness in the level of reporting and that the most important determinants affecting the discrepancy of reporting consist  of the types of sector and  disclosure instructions applied in the market and the accounting system adopted, and the fact that the sector size  did not have a significant impact on the level of reporting sustainability accounting . The research recommends the support of companies listed in the Iraqi market for securities that adopt initiatives to report sustainability accounting by various means and provide facilities to ensure its sustainability.  Pages 753 to 773

A Critical Discourse Stylistic Analysis of Discrimination with Supply Chain Practices in English Children Short Stories

Hussein  Hameed  Ma'yuufa, Tamadher  Khudhair  So'adb, a,bUniversity of  Babylon  ,College of Education for Human Sciences , Dept. of  English, Email: ahusm56@gmail.com,  btamadherkhudair@gmail.com

This paper explores discrimination in English children short stories through critical stylistics CS and critical discourse analysis CDA frameworks along with supply chain practices. CDA aims at uncovering the embedded ideology through the relations between textual analysis and socio-context. CS also aims at revealing the embedded ideologies through linguistic choices. Discrimination is a slippery concept. It covers a range of distinct circumstances in political theory and applied ethics dealing with justice, medical ethics and criminal justice besides multiculturalism, liberal rights, and feminism. Discrimination is, for instance, when  somebody  treats a person identified as being of a particular class differently than s/he otherwise would have done owing to un-due  temperament or prejudice against  persons of that class. Discrimination can be direct, indirect, or structural. The eclectic model which is adapted in this study integrates CS and CDA frameworks to investigate the linguistic structures of the chosen short stories that represent discrimination. The finding of this study indicates that children are bitterly subjected to discrimination of diverse type: gender, race and colour. Pages 774 to 791

The Pragmatics of Arrogation in Trump's Political Speeches along with Supply Chain Management

Qassim Abbas Dhayefa, Aseel Kareem Mohammedb, a,bDepartment of English, College of Education for Human Sciences, University of Babylon, Email: aqassimdhayf@gmail.com,  baseelaltemimi1990@gmail.com

The aim of this paper is to explore how the analysis of arrogation can be tackled in Trump’s speech within the frame work of pragmatics theory along with supply chain management. The term arrogation comes from Latin arrogatus the participle of arrogo which denotes to ask or to claim something for him or her. So, this act of claiming is called an act of violation because the individual conquers something for him and this action is generally considered as an act of injustice (Crabb‏, 1818). Arrogation has been given little attention from previous researchers especially from a pragmatic perspective, therefore, this paper attempts to fill this gap by answering the following questions: (1) what are the types of speech acts that are used by Trump through which the term arrogation occurs? (2) What are the features of arrogation that are used in Trump’s speech? (3) How are Politeness strategies (PS henceforth) and the Cooperative Principle (CP henceforth) used by Trump in his political speech? (4) What are the rhetorical devices that are utilized in Trump’s speech? Pragmatics is normally concerned with the utterance of the speaker and as such it explores what the users of language mean, what they attempt to do and how they do it in real situations. So, this study adopts an eclectic model to analyse the concept of arrogation pragmatically. Pages 792 to 813

The Ethics of Media through the Arab Electronic Press Sites as Digital Communication: Mediating Role of Supply Chain

Adheem  Kamil  Zreyazba*, Thanaa  Ismael  Rashidb, a,bDept.of  Media ,College of Arts, Babylon University, Email: a*adheem.kamil@uababylon.edu.iq

The discourse of press goes through the press websites with the problem of moving away from the formation of its legislation and media ethics serves as the arbiter and adjudicator in classifying the quality of discourse, based on the professional indicators which can be used to predict the future of press sites in terms of impact and reception. The current study aims to identify the problems of dealing with media ethics in the new communication environment and to diagnose the nature of the relationship of this communication through Arab press sites in the context of media ethics along with the mediating role of supply chain. The study has reached a number of conclusions concerning the absence of media ethics in some discourse through the Arab press websites for various reasons including the spread of the apparent hate discourse and incitement, the phenomenon of discourses politicization, re-manufacturing the reality, the adoption of the structural language excitement and exaggeration, the widespread phenomena of non-mention of the information sources and of framing and surface treatments. This study has summarized a scientific vision of all the phenomena and causes that stand in the way of adherence to the ethics of media. Pages 814 to 831

Employees’ Evaluations about their Innovative Capabilities: A Concept to Achieve Enhanced Innovative Performance

Ch. Mahmood Anwara*, Nurliyana Binti Maludinb, Yee-Lee Chongc, a,b,cFaculty of Business & Finance, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar, Malaysia, Email: a*Mahmood.Anwar@scholarsindex.com

This article introduces a new psychological concept i.e., innovativeness based self-esteem which is confined within self-concept paradigm. The concept reflects individual’s self-evaluations about his personal innovative capabilities to determine his significance, successfulness, and worthiness in an organization. The study adopted knowledge void technique to identify the research gap and further discussed theoretical perspectives and characteristics of innovativeness based self-esteem. At last, the study argued how innovativeness based self-esteem can play an important role to enhance innovative performance of employees. It is worth mentioning that the introduced concept is equally applicable to both public and private sector organizations. Pages 832 to 854
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