Entrepreneur Intentions to Eliminate Youth Unemployment: A Structural Equation Modeling

M abdur Rahman1, Md Sabur Khan2, 1,2Daffodil International University(DIU), Faculty of Business & Entrepreneurship(FBE), Email: 1rahman@diu.edu.bd

The word of Entrepreneurship is like Self-employment and it is positively the instrument of economic development. An entrepreneur creates job opportunities in the market and supports eradicating the youth unemployment rate. The improvement of Entrepreneurship is initiated from enlargement of intention so that the key idea of the study is to examine the intentions of university students of Daffodil International University while setting up their new professional. To attain this determination, Ajzen's theory of Planned Behavior has been applied to test. In the study data was obtained through an online survey questionnaire from the same university have participated where the convenience-sampling technique has applied to get responses from 205 participants. Data analysis was conducted for the model through AMOS to test for structural equation model (SEM) and SPSS to apply descriptive statistics. The output of the overall model showed that Ajzen's theory is highly valuable for this study statistically significant. Recommendations for a comparative study between private and public universities in further to understand the overall perspective of Bangladeshi university students perception. Pages 1 to 14




Analysis of Student’s Critical Thinking Ability in Accounting

Novedi Risanti Langgia, Siswandarib, Khresna Bayu Sangkac, a,b,c,Sebelas Maret University, Email: vedirisanti98@gmail.coma, siswandari@staff.uns.ac.idb, b.sangka@staff.uns.ac.idc

Critical thinking skills must be mastered by students in the 21st century. The purpose of this study is to analyze the extent to which critical thinking skills are possessed by students in vocational schools in accounting learning. This research is included in the type of qualitative descriptive research. Data collection techniques consisted of observation, tests, and unstructured interviews (open interviews). This research was conducted at VHS 1 Ngawi with the research subjects of class XI students majoring in Financial and Institutional Accounting. The results showed that student’s critical thinking skills in accounting learning are still low. The implications of the findings indicate the need for improvements to the current learning system. Pages 15 to 24




Democratic Civic Education during Chinese Language Classes in South Korea: Focusing on the Democratization Movements of Taiwan and Hong Kong

Hwang, Sun Mi1, Eun Young Jang2, 1Department of Chinese Studies, Hanshin University, Osan, Republic of Korea, 2Division of Foreign Language Education, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Republic of Korea, Email: j9902768@hufs.ac.kr

This study explores ways to implement democratic civic education during Chinese language classes at secondary schools in South Korea. It does so by examining the democratization movements that occurred in Taiwan and Hong Kong, and then designing a Chinese language class covering the topic. Specifically, first, it explores the slogans and songs used during the democratization movements of Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2014, and then proposes incorporating them into the Chinese language class. Democratic civic competency is currently regarded in South Korea as a core competency for the future. In this respect, this study aims to improve the Chinese communication skills of secondary school students taking the Chinese language class, and additionally nurture their interest in global political issues and foster an appropriate understanding of the relationship between China and surrounding countries and democratic civic education.  Pages 25 to 37



An Empirical Investigation of the Factors Affecting Data Warehouse Technology Success in Medical Institutions

Assistant Professor Fahad M Alsaadi, Taif University, Email: fmsaadi@tu.edu.sa

Recently, due to the expansion in data complexity and manageability issues, data warehousing become one of the tops focuses on information systems researchers and practitioners especially in healthcare. Medical institutions are capturing, storing, and analyzing a very complex and huge quantity of data that has big volume, velocity, and variety. These big data come from a variety of sources, including personal information, patients record, and other sources that making the jobs very challenge to be done. Therefore, a demand has been created to implement a data warehouse technology in medical institutions to support their decisions making. This paper depicts a problem regarding the complexity of the data in medical institutions in Saudi Arabia. In this study, a cross-sectional survey was used to investigate a model of data warehousing success particularly in a single intensive industry such as medical institutions. The findings of the study show that certain variables in both organizational and technological dimensions have a significant influence on data warehousing success. Pages 38 to 54

Six Fields for Innovation to Learn from Fiction Writing

Ping Lan, College of Business and Security Management, University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775, U.S.A. Email:  plan@alaska.edu

This article develops a paradigm for innovation to learn from fiction writing meaningfully. Using a method of participant observation, the author engaged in the creative activities in the two streams over the years. The paper points out six disparities by comparing the two novelty-centered domains. The article further frames practical channels for innovation to learn from its counterpart. At the same time, measures for improving innovation education and research are suggested. The research findings help expand the frontiers of business innovation. Pages 55 to 76

Documenting the Preview Concert and Creative Compositional Process of the Opera Serikandi Nusantara

Tazul Izan Tajuddin1, Md Jais Ismail2, 1,2Conservatory of Music, College of Creative Arts, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. Corresponding author: 2mdjais@uitm.edu.my

This research project is about documenting the preview concert and creative process of composing the Opera Serikandi Nusantara which are using the Malay and Southeast Asian traditional musical elements into creating a new composition for opera. It utilizes materials entitled ‘Legendary Princesses of Malaysia’ written by Raman and illustrated by Emila Yusof through Modern Compositional Method and Perspective: materials taken out from local Malaysian context and stories and move on to a wider context of music composition, especially international classical contemporary art music; mainly Europeans and North Americans. Pages 77 to 83

Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater Quality in Dukwi Wellfield in Botswana

Abijah Diphofu1, Jerome A. Yendaw1, Raymond S. Suglo1, 1Department of Mining and Geological Engineering, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Private Bag 16, Palapye, Botswana, Correspondence should be addressed to Jerome A. Yendaw; yendawj@biust.ac.bw; Telephone: (267) 493 1674; Cell phone: (267) 75 323 627

There has been a decline in groundwater quality in most wellfields in Botswana. This study evaluated the groundwater quality in Dukwi Wellfield for drinking and irrigation purposes and characterised the dominant hydrochemical processes in the wellfield area during winter and summer seasons. The parameters used to assess the water quality for irrigation purposes were percent sodium (%Na) and Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR), while for drinking purposes, Water Quality Index (WQI) was assessed. A piper plot was used for the geochemical characterisation of the groundwater while Gibbs plot was used to determine the dominant processes that govern groundwater chemistry. The results show that water from Borehole BH 2985 is excellent for drinking and irrigation as the average %Na, SAR and WQI values were 14.60%, 0.60 and less than 48.37 respectively. The water from Borehole BH 7521 is unsuitable for drinking and irrigation due to the high %Na values (> 90.47%). Also water from Borehole BH 4649 is of poor quality (WQI values > 162.15). The piper plots revealed that 70% of the samples of water in the area has sodium chloride while the Gibbs plots show that the groundwater is highly influenced by rock weathering and moderately by evaporation precipitation. Pages 84 to 100

ICSM: Imbalanced Chunk-Based Stream Model

Mashaal A. Alfhaid1, Manal A. Abdullah2, 1Faculty of Computing and Information Technology, King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, ORCID: 0000-0002-5349-0248, 2faculty of Computing and Information Technology FCIT, King Abdulaziz University KAU, Saudi Arabia SA. ORCID: 0000-0003-2660-6011

Stream data mining becomes one of the major important topics. It is considered one of the fields that face challenges due to continuously arriving data that processed at a single scan. As pre-processing is one of the critical stages in data mining, imbalanced stream data gain significant popularity in the last few years among researchers as many real-world applications suffer from this issue. Handling imbalanced data is mandatory for more accurate and reliable learning models and most importantly have a fast-running time. In this paper, an Imbalanced Chunk-based Stream Model (ICSM) is proposed. It monitors the overall imbalanced ratio of the classification over binary classes. ICSM tested based on several factors: Imbalanced-ratio (IR) diversity by using ten generated data streams, over-sampling techniques and base-classifiers quality. Moreover, it is compared against state-of-art algorithms such as Over/under ensemble OUSE. The experiments show that the ICSM cannot be proceed with too small chunk-size. Nevertheless, large chunk-size can affect the time-delay.  It has also been proven that SVMSMOTE outperform other sampling techniques in highly imbalanced ratio. While the GUSSIAN classifier have better performance comparing to other classifiers. Lastly, ICSM outperforms other state-of-art techniques in term of evaluation metrics and time delay in about 95%. Pages 101 to 119

Development And Validation of a Creative Environment Test

Kyung-Hwa Leea and Ga-Hyung Leeb*, aDepartment of Lifelong Education, Soongsil University, Seoul, Korea; bSoongsil University, Seoul, Korea, *Corresponding Author: 369, Sangdo-ro, Munhwa blg #103, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul, Korea, 06978; kh005318@hanmail.net

This study aims to develop and validate a creative environment test for university students that considers both the home and school environment. The creative home environment test was based on the theory of Lee and Lee (2019), while the creative school environment test was based on Lee et al. (2021). This test was divided into the home environment and the school environment to develop and improve creativity, and it considered components of both psychological and physical support within a creative environment. Psychological support in a creative environment refers to parents or teachers encouraging and supporting creative thinking and ideas, whereas physical support in a creative school environment includes the provision of free time and space, as well as opportunities for creative experiences. This test is a creative environmental test that can comprehensively measure the home environment and the school environment using a self-reported 5-point Likert scale to answer relevant questions. The sample comprised 320 university students after 316 subjects were excluded because of insincere data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, correlation, reliability verification, an exploratory factor analysis, and a confirmatory factor analysis using SPSS 25.0 and AMOS 25.0. The reliability of the creative home environment was Cronbach .804, the reliability of the creative school environment was Cronbach .875, and the overall reliability was Cronbach .882, which showed that the internal consistency of the questions was good. The test validity was proven through an exploratory factor analysis and a confirmatory factor analysis. Pages 120 to 139

Assessing Research Collaboration for Technological Innovations in ICT Institutions in Nigeria

Bolanle A. Adewusi1 and Oluseye O. Jegede2, 1The Innovative Woman Africa Initiative, Abuja, Nigeria, African Institute for Science Policy and Innovation, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 2DHET-NRF South African Research Chair in Entrepreneurship Education, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: 1bsadewusi@gmail.com, 2oluseyej@uj.ac.za                          

The study purposively selected 340 researchers in the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) Department in Knowledge Institutions in Nigeria. The study aimed to determine the effect of collaboration on innovation outputs. Two forms of collaboration (active and passive) were explored as sources of information in the study. The main research instrument was a questionnaire administered to three hundred researchers in the School of Computing and Informatics across thirty universities in Nigeria and forty other researchers in the Research & Development (R&D) Departments in four ICT-related government research agencies. The study identified eight partners for collaboration. These eight indicators were regressed against indicators of ICT R&D outputs (publications, patents, and prototypes) during the reference period 2016, 2017, and 2018. In addition, the eight indicators were regressed against indicators of ICT innovations (product and process innovations) during the reference period 2016 to 2018, with ICT R&D outputs and innovations as dependent variables and the sources of information and collaborating partners as independent variables. The study found that institutional sources, market sources, and other technical sources of information significantly impacted the ICT R&D outputs. However, market sources of information are the leading significant influencers of ICT innovations. Also, publications written with colleagues in other institutions and patents granted with colleagues in the same institutions through collaborations are critical drivers of ICT R&D outputs in the knowledge institutions. At the same time, market partners such as suppliers and clients are the main drivers of ICT innovations. Pages 140 to 164

Development and Implementation of VCDLN-TVUPI Ecosystem Multi-platform Super-App in South Korea, Japan and Indonesia

Deni Darmawan1, Dinn Wahyudin2, Yuyus Suherman3, Dianni Risda4, 1Educational Technology Department, Faculty of Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, 2Curriculum Development of Postgraduate School, 3Special Education Department, 4 Japanese Language Study Department, Email: deni_darmawan@upi.edu

The research was motivated by the research product in 2020-2021 about VCDLN-TVUPI Flatform that to be sustain. This utilization process requires a new system that is oriented towards the Multiplatform Super-App Ecosystem in 2022 with focus on covering of Survey, Application Design, Development and production, whose impact is then measured with a number of indicators for online learning systems. This measurement process was carried out on teachers from Indonesia, Kora and Japan. The method used is R&D. The results showed that: (a) The results of survey show that the Multiplatform Ecosystem Super-app VCDLN-TVUPI program is highly recommended by teachers to continue; (b) Designing Super-App Multiplatform Business Process Business model, has been carried out using the DFD level 0 and DFD level 01 approaches;(c) Designing the Multiplatform Super-App has been developed according to the standard Super-App version for the convenience of the visual aspect with C++ programming procedures;(d) Generate Learning Video Content into Multiplatform Super-App VCDLN-TVUPI Streaming Portable version and Android Mobile Version has been carried out with quality industry standards;(e) The results of measuring of Multiplatform Super-App VCDLN-TVUPI are above the average and are able to reach the maximum score with a range from 178 to 199. Pages 165 to 180

Rasch Model To Analyze Item Quality And Ability Of Fourth  Elementary School Students

Tatan Zenal Mutakin1*, Burhanuddin Tola2, Bahrul Hayat3, 1Indraprasta PGRI University, 2State University of Jakarta, 3Jakarta State Islamic University, Email: zmtatan74@gmail.com*tatanzenalmutakin_7817158057@mhs.unj.ac.id

In 2019, Indonesian nation did not participate at Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) because of not getting good achievements in several time. This study aims to analyze the fourth elementary school mathematics literacy items in the 2019 TIMSS framework. The study held in DKI Jakarta involving 407 public elementary school students. The test items analyze used the Rasch Model with Winstep program version 4.4.7. The results, from 47 test items answered by students, were 23 items fit the model and had moderate of difficulty levels. Besides, the level of  students’ ability in test items was medium and low level categories. This means that the fourth-level public elementary school students had good abilities in answering the items medium and low levels. While, test items high level could not be well-answered. To improve students' ability in answering high-order thinking skills (HOTs) test items very well, student shoud do regular exercises so that they get used to these HOTs test items. Pages 181 to 193

Analysis of Economic Growth and Income Disparity in North Kalimantan Province

Syaiful Anwar, Faculty of Economics, Universitas Borneo Tarakan, saiful.borneotarakan@gmail.com

The purpose of this study is to determine the differences in the economic structure of districts and cities in North Kalimantan Province as measured using Location Quotients, Shift Share Analysis, Klassen Typology and Williamson Index. This research is a type of quantitative research that uses data in the form of numbers. This research was conducted in Tarakan City. The data collection technique uses library research by collecting data from publications on the official website of the relevant agencies/institutions and using periodic series data. The results showed that the Location Quotients and Shift Share analysis were carried out to describe the various basic sectors in each Regency/City in North Kalimantan Province as well as the performance and productivity of sectors in the economy of a region. The results of the Klassen typology analysis divide the regencies/cities in North Kalimantan Province into 3 classifications according to the results of the Klassen typology. (Tarakan City, Malinau Regency and Nunukan Regency are included in the classification of fast developing but not developed regions. Then, Tana Tidung Regency is included in the classification of developed but depressed regions. And finally, Bulungan Regency is included in the relatively underdeveloped region. Meanwhile, of the four classifications above, none of the areas in the Regency/City of North Kalimantan Province are classified as developed and growing fast. The Williamson Index analysis results show that in terms of inequality, it can be seen that the value of the Williamson Index continues to decline from year to year, this indicates that inequality in North Kalimantan Province is very low. Pages 194 to 208

Household Waste Management According to A New Normal of Public Service: A Case Study of Bangkok

Ravipa Thummachote, Associate Professor, Faculty of Political Science, Ramkhamhaeng University, Thailand, Email: Ravipa_t123@hotmail.com                                                                                                                              

The subject is “Household waste management according to a new normal of public service: A case study of Bangkok” this study has three objectives 1) to study the behavior of the people in household waste management according to the new way of public service in Bangkok 2) to study the factors affecting the behavior of the people in the waste management of the households according to the new public service approach in the area Bangkok 3) to study the problems and obstacles in household waste management according to the new public service guidelines in Bangkok area. It is a quantitative research model and documentary research. The population in this research was households in Bangkok. which has announced a new approach to waste management according to public services total number of 50 districts, 3,041,115 households. The researcher used simple random sampling and used a questionnaire for households in the three districts with the highest number of households in the top three by randomly selecting households. accounted for 1: 1000 of 337 households, consisting of 121 households in Chatuchak, 112 households in Bang Khen and 104 households in Bang Kapi The finding are:1) The behavior of the people in household waste management are according to the new approach found that separate each type of waste such as organic solid waste, general solid waste, and recycled solid waste. 2) Factors affecting ,people’s behavior in household waste management are according to the new approach to public service in Bangkok. It was found that the knowledge and understanding of households and household waste campaign measures according to the new government guidelines It affects the behavior of people in household waste management according to the new public service guidelines.3) Problems and obstacles in household waste management are according to the new public service guidelines in Bangkok area. because of ordering food delivery, It is a problem of the state's public service that is not yet thorough. Pages 209 to 224

Does Anti-Corruption Information Disclosure Affect Government Linked Companies’ Financial Performance?

Mohd Fairuz Adnan1, Rina Fadhilah Ismail1*, Norfitrah Che Mat1, Hamezah Md Nor2, 1Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA Selangor, Bandar Puncak Alam, Malaysia, 2Faculty of Economics and Management, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Malaysia, *Corresponding author: rinafadhilah@uitm.edu.my

According to the Malaysian Anti-Corruption Commission (MACC), there were about 821 investigation papers opened and the same number was arrested due to committing corruption from January to November 2018. It has been reported that the Government Linked Companies (GLCs) staffs are part of criminals being arrested due to corruption where there were about 26 arrested criminals. This is alarming since GLCs being a key player in the economy; contributes about 42% control in the entire Bursa Malaysia. Hence, this study aims to investigate the level of Anti-Corruption Information Disclosure (AAID) and its relationship to the firm performance of GLCs in Malaysia for the period of 2015 to 2017. To achieve the objective of this study, a sample was selected from 60 companies through random stratified sampling. This study uses elements of Policy, Organization, Reporting and Risk Assessment to describe AAID, while firm performance is represented by the Sales Growth (ROS) and Return on Asset (ROA). The results reveal that AAID did not significantly influence the ROS, but significantly affected the ROA. It is also concluded that the extent of AAID among GLCs in Malaysia was at a moderate level indicating less transparency of AAID information among GLCs in Malaysia.  Pages 225 to 242

The Effect of Capital Structure and Company Size on Financial Performance of Companies Moderated With Gender Diversity

Ikin Solikin1, Desy Lutfiati2, Deni Darmawan3, 1,2Accounting Study Program, Faculty of Economics and Business Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, Bandung, Indonesia, 3Educational Technology and Communicstion Science Departmenet, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, email: 1ikin.solikin@upi.edu, 3deni_darmawan@upi.edu

This study aims to determine the effect of capital structure and firm size on financial performance moderated by gender diversity in property and real estate companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange in 2017-2020. The sampling method used is purposive sampling so that it uses a sample of 27 of 62 property and real estate companies. The type of data used is secondary data in the form of annual financial reports obtained through the idx.com site. The data analysis method used in this study is Panel Data Regression and Moderate Regression Analysis using Eviews 10 software. The results show that Capital Structure has a negative and insignificant effect on Financial Performance, Company Size has a negative and insignificant effect on Financial Performance, Gender Diversity can moderate the relationship between Capital Structure and Financial Performance positively and significantly and Gender Diversity cannot moderate the relationship between Firm Size and Financial Performance. Pages 243 to 255

Roles of Pathet Lao’s Photographs During Laos Revolution War in 1954-1975

Pichak Thananchaibut, Faculty of Fine and Applies Arts, Khon Kaen University, 123 Moo 16 Mittraphap Rd, Nai Muang,Muang District, Khon kaen, 40002,Thailand, Email Address: pichak.th@kmitl.ac.th

This article aims to discuss the roles of photographs, which were taken by the ‘Pathet Lao Movement (Popular name for Lao Patriotic Front’s (Lao Hak Xat))’ who upholds socialism as their ideology in the civil war against ‘Royal Lao Government in Lao PDR during 1954 -1975. This article presents the roles of photography used in media, flyers, and newspapers in relaying important information of the present situation and showcasing the story of the fight of the Pathet Lao Movement. It was used to arouse the mass of people who were sided with them and induce people who are against them by using propaganda.  Under Soviet Media Theory as resulted from a set of photographs that appeared between 1955 – 1975, it was found that photographs were used as propaganda which is an attempt to steal the mass full on. Pages 256 to 270

Predicting Computer Self-Efficacy of E-Learning Systems Security Attacks using Confirmatory factor Analysis

Fahad M Alsaadi, Taif University, Email: fmsaadi@tu.edu.sa

Since many academic institutions in US have adopted e-learning systems to facilitate collaboration among the students and their professors, demand has been created to assess the perceptions of Saudi students on the severity of the unethical actions in attacks to the e-learning system. This study investigated the prediction relationship between the Computer Self-Efficacy (CSE), and Students Computer Skills (SCS), Security of E-learning Systems (SOM), Resistance to using e-learning system (RTU) and IS Usage (ISU), as well as predicting the relationship between Security of E-learning Systems (SOM) and Students Computer Skills (SCS) on the severity of the unethical actions in attacks to the e-learning system based on Saudi students’ perspective. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) have been performed using SmartPLS software. Cronbach’s Alpha results for each factor demonstrates reliability for all constructs measured. Pages 271 to 276

Individual Performance Model of Indonesian Millennial Generation Employees

Nugroho Dwi Priyohadi1, Fajrianthi2, Fendy Suhariadi3, Rahadian Ahmad4, 1STIAMAK Barunawati Surabaya, 2,3Universitas Airlangga, 4Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta,  Email: 1nugroho.dp@stiamak.ac.id, 2fajrianthi@psikologi.unair.ac.id, 3fendy.suhariadi@psikologi.unair.ac.id, 4rahadian.ahmad@ui.ac.id

This manuscript is the result of the author’s doctoral research in Surabaya, Indonesia, in 2020, updated to consider the situation in 2021. It is common knowledge that millennials have increasingly dominated many business and government organizations. Amid high individual performance demands for organizations, research relating to the individual performance of the millennial generation remains to be scarce. A performance model must tailor to the unique characteristics of the millennial generation be made so that their performance can be optimized. Thus, this study aims to test the individual performance model of millennial generation employees. The model is expected to help optimize employees’ performance to aid organizations in achieving their objectives more optimally. By reconstructing the existing concept, the current model was built using the following variables: grit, organizational communication, transformational leadership, and teamwork. Teamwork act as a mediator. This quantitative study involved 738 people through simple random sampling as participants. Participants were included if they were millennial employees either in managerial positions or operational staff. The study used five scales: (1) Individual Performance Scale compiled by Johari & Yahya (2012), (2) Grit scale by Duckworth (2007), (3) Transformational Leadership scale by Beveren et al. (2017), (4) Communication Satisfaction Scale developed by Down & Hazen (1977) and Okay & Okay (2009), and (5) the scale of teamwork by Kiesewetter & Fischer (2015). The results show that the individual performance model was compatible with the conceptual model. This finding proves that the individual performance of millennial employees is influenced by grit, organizational communication, transformational leadership, and teamwork. In other words, if the organization intends to improve the individual performance of millennial generation employees, then they should consider the role of grit, organizational communication, transformational leadership, and teamwork. This research is also expected to theoretically contribute to the development of millennial generation employee performance models. It also has practical implications, in which the individual performance model can help organizations design training and program to improve their employees’ performance, especially the millennial generation. Pages 277 to 301

Online Learning Engagement Among Malaysian Primary School Students During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Siew Ming Thang1, Najihah Mahmud2, Nurjanah Mohd Jaafar3, Liz Lay Shi Ng4, Noor Baizura Abdul Aziz5, 1HELP University, Malaysia, 2Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Malaysia, 3,4Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 5Abdedeen Academy, Malaysia, Email: 1tsm.2001uk@gmail.com, 2najihahmhmd@gmail.com, 3nurjanah@ukm.edu.my, 4lizng@ukm.edu.my, 5zura.aziz_155@yahoo.com

COVID-19 had completely changed the landscape of Malaysia’s education system. The pandemic had led to severe closure of schools and a shift to an online teaching and learning mode. In response to this, The Teaching and Learning at Home (PdPR) programme was introduced and implemented. In view of the circumstances, it was necessary to find out how Malaysian students were coping with this change and how effective was this new mode of teaching and learning. Exploring issues pertaining to the online learning engagement of primary school students is vital in addressing a gap not investigated before. This concern spurred the current study which was designed to explore Malaysian primary school students’ perceptions of their online learning engagement, focusing on behavioural, cognitive, and emotional engagement. Its relationship with student background characteristics, i.e. school types, gender, and levels of schooling was also examined. To this end, a questionnaire was administered online to 436 primary school students from various parts of Malaysia. The students were required to answer a four-point Likert scale ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree. A quantitative approach was used to analyse the data descriptively and inferentially. The inferential statistics tool used was a one-way ANOVA.   The findings revealed that the students generally had a favourable view of their online learning engagement, however, there was a general preference for classroom learning. The main problems they faced were teachers and schools not providing the necessary materials and support and a lack of social interaction. The study contributed to a better understanding of Malaysian Primary school students’ online learning engagement during the current COVID-19 pandemic. It also suggests the need to come up with measures to  address the issues concerned, such as, implementing more project-based learning and introducing Learning Management System (LMS) in schools. Pages 302 to 326

Poverty and Social Impact of the Stipend Program for Secondary School Girls of Sirajganj District in Bangladesh: Poverty and Social Impact Analysis

Md. Rakibul Hasan Baten1, Subrata Saha2, 1Department of Economics, Mawlana Bhashani Science & Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh, 2Corresponding Author and Assistant Professor, Department of Economics, Mawlana Bhashani Science & Technology University, Tangail, Bangladesh.       E-mail: 1rakibulhassan062@gmail.com, 2subrataeco2015@mbstu.ac.bd

In 1994, a female stipend program was created to boost female enrolment, making secondary education free for girls. This research was started to look into the poverty and social impact of a conditional cash transfer program for secondary school girls in Bangladesh's Sirajganj area. The impacts of the Female Secondary Stipend Program on female enrolment in secondary school in Sirajganj district are investigated in this research. The stipend increased the number of years of school for eligible females, according to our findings. This paper also examines some social factors that influenced female enrollment rate. We also estimate that parental awareness about the evil effects of early marriage on female enrollment rate which increase the enrollment rate by delaying age at marriage. The dropout rate for girls in grades 6 through 10 was also lowered as a result of this initiative. In this situation, a stipend program should be continued for the benefit of these poor individuals. The stipend program has increased female enrolment in the Sirajganj area, as well as raising awareness of female education among disadvantaged households. The stipend program encourages disadvantaged families to send their female children to school. These findings suggest that through the conditional cash transfer program in secondary school, school-based stipend programs can boost female enrolment rates. Pages 327 to 342

The Effect of The Neural Branching Thinking Strategies in Teaching Mathematics on Developing the Mathematical Proficiency for High School Students

Sabah Abdalla Elsayed1, Khamisah Saad Abdul Aziz Al-Abbad2, 1Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, Suez University, Suez, Egypt, 2Department of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam 31441, P.O. Box 1982, Saudi Arabia

This research aims to identify the effect of neural branching thinking strategies on developing mathematical proficiency among secondary school students. The study sample represented (63) students of the first year of secondary school in the eighth secondary school in Al-Khobar Governorate, Saudi    Arabia    Kingdom. In order to achieve the objectives of the research, the researchers prepared the test of mathematical proficiency, as well as the productive disposition scale to collect data according to the quasi-experimental approach, and the results showed that the experimental group surpassed the control group in both mathematical proficiency as a whole and each of its dimensions , as well as in the measure of productive disposition as a whole and in the propensity axis towards learning mathematics, and according to this results, it was recommended with the importance of  the mathematics teachers activating  the strategies of branching thinking in the teaching of mathematics at different learning grades. Pages 343 to 369

Globalization and Transformations of Nepalese Lifestyle in Bhattarai’s Summer Love

Bimal Kishore Shrivastwa, Department of English, Tribhuvan University, Biratnagar, Nepal

The paper aims to explore the transformation of Nepalese lifestyle, conduct, and culture due to the impact of globalization by analyzing Subin Bhattarai’s novel, Summer Love. The analytical, explorative research method is used to test major global issues such as distortion of Nepalese culture, the transformation of the Nepalese individuals, the growing use and impact of technology on Nepalese society, and adoption of the consumerist culture. To analyze how globalization has both positive and negative impacts on the Nepalese people, as demonstrated in the novel, globalization literature is used as a research tool, with special focus on the theories of globalization advocated by Timoty Brennan and Suman Gupta. The non-random purposive sampling procedure was used to collect data from the text, Summer Love, and qualitative research design, especially document analysis model was used to analyze the data. The research finding is that Nepalese lifestyle has become ambiguous because of globalization. People have gained some positive things from the development of technology and some negative things from this consumerist global society. The research is expected to stand as the guidelines for the students and researchers interested in researching in the field of globalization in Nepalese society. Pages 370 to 384

Digital Strategic of Instructional Communication Management in Developing Curriculum of Teacher Education Institutions (TIEs) in Indonesia and Japan

Dinn Wahyudin1, Deni Darmawan2, Laksmi Dewi3, Yulia Rahmawati4, 1Curriculum Development Department of Post Graduate School, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia; 2Educational Technology Department, Faculty of Education Science, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia, 3Curriculum Development Department of Post Graduate School, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia; 4Cullinary Education Study Program, Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Corresponding author email: deni_darmawan@upi.edu

This research is based on the demands of the competence of learning communication strategies that must be possessed by teachers. Especially the teachers from Indonesia who were compared with a number of samples from teachers from Japan. The focus of the problems in this research include: (1) description of Competences strategic communication for teachers in Indonesia and Japan; (2) description of the performance of teachers in Indonesia and Japan in carrying out Processing Instructional Communication; (3) knowing the ability of teachers in Indonesia and Japan in applying the Learning Communication Model so far; and (4) the description when knowing the ability of Indonesian and Japanese teachers to close learning as a form of using communication strategies. The method used in this study is an explanatory survey method on a sample of 260 teachers. The results show that (1) strategic communication competencies that vary and decrease in the aspect of measuring indicators of ability to communicate with the media, utilization of learning communication message sources; (2) Optimizing the impact of communicating, setting agendas and organizing learning communication messages tends to increase by teachers Indonesia and Japan; (3) The application of non-verbal communication, the use of empathy, and persuasive abilities in learning communication tend to be balanced by Teacher Indonesia and Japan; and (4) Closing the use of communication strategies with measurement indicators that include driving communication, investigative communication, and closing the learning communication process with up and down tendencies. Pages 385 to 399

Achievement Tests Administration using Computerized Adaptive Testing (CAT) with Constrain Response Time Item

Handaru Catu Bagus1*, Burhanuddin Tola2, Awaluddin Tjalla3, 1,2,3Postgraduate, Universitas Negeri Jakarta, Indonesia, Correspondence Email: handcab@gmail.com

Assessment models that ignore the ability of individual variations cause the information received will not be optimal. The computerized adaptive testing (CAT) model can overcome this weakness because the items that appear with the level of difficulty will adjust to the ability of the test taker. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effectiveness, efficiency and accuracy of the CAT model when used as an assessment model in school achievement tests. The research methodology is comparative quantitative. This study uses population data from the answers of students who took part in the UNBK in the province of the Special Capital Region (DKI) Jakarta in 2019 with mathematics as a subject. The results of this study show that the number of items selected by the CAT model is less than the CBT model and the items adjust to the level of ability of the traveller and have a small measurement error value of the reference value and are almost the same as the CBT model. Therefore, the CAT model is more efficient in terms of time because the number of questions is less than the CBT model, effective because it adapts to the abilities of the participants and has the same accuracy as the CBT model. Pages 400 to 417

Sustainability of Homestay Operators in Malaysia During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Amrizah Kamaluddin1*, Norziaton Ismail Khan1, Nurul Nadiah Ibrahim1, Devi Valeriani2, Muhammad Faisal Akbar2, 1Faculty of Accountancy, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Cawangan Selangor, Kampus Puncak Alam, Malaysia. 2Faculty of Economy, Universitas Bangka Belitung, Pulau Bangka, Indonesia. Email: amrizah@uitm.edu.my*, norzi153@uitm.edu.my, nurul0068@uitm.edu.my, deviyono92@gmail.com, akbarf755@gmail.com.

The novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak has economically affected the Malaysian tourism industry. The government has anticipated losses worth billions of Ringgit Malaysia from the tourism industry due to the movement control order and closure of tourists’ destinations. The current study explored the pandemic’s impact on homestay operators during the pandemic and proposes several innovative actions that can be adopted by homestay operators to revive their economy to avoid financial distress. This study focused on homestay operators located in Pulau Langkawi and in the state of Kedah. Four interviews were undertaken with the coordinators of homestay operators from three villages. One interview was conducted with the Kedah Ministry of Tourism, Art, and Culture (MOTAC) development officer.  Two of the interviews were conducted online due to the  movement control order restrictions. According to the interviewees, the pandemic strongly impacted the economy of the homestay operators. Prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the homestay operators faced competition from surrounding hotels in Pulau Langkawi. Their situation worsened due to zero revenue during the MCO. Nevertheless, most of the operators consider the homestay business as a part-time income. The study provides enhancement on the knowledge of tourism sustainability impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Pages 418 to 431

Amplifying Entrepreneurship Development in The Knowledge Economy: The Role of Entrepreneurship Education

Iwaloye Bunmi Omoniyi1, Bongani Thulani Gamede2, Sunday Olawale Olaniran3, 1,2Social Science Education, University of Zululand, South Africa, 3Education Leadership and Management, University of Johannesburg, South Africa.

Entrepreneurship education is a vital key that opens the door of socio-economic and sustainable development of any nation.  Recognizing the significance of entrepreneurship education in fostering entrepreneurial development and the economy, the South African Department of Higher Education has taken the lead by mandating entrepreneurship as a compulsory subject in colleges and universities. Simultaneously, these students are encouraged to participate in the numerous entrepreneurship activities offered by their particular universities, such as training, seminars, short courses, and conferences. This paper is a review of literature on entrepreneurship education to socio-economic development. An entrepreneurship education, when effectively organized, can boost skill acquisition, capacity building, entrepreneurial development, and economic growth and development in South Africa. Pages 432 to 449

Dating Behavior of Minang Kabau Adolescents (Survey in Pesisir Selatan District, West Sumatera)

Ifina Trimuliana. Lecturer Departemen of Early Childhood Education, Tangerang Raya University. Email: ifina_trimuliana@untara.ac.id

The dating behavior of many teenagers today has led to sexual activity and has violated the norms of the local community. Minang Kabau is an area known as the land of fortune, which has strong customs and traditions. Many community rules regulate daily behavior, including courtship behavior. But of course this courtship behavior is still found in Minang Kabaut. Therefore, this study aims to determine the form of courtship behavior in Minang Kabau youth, especially in Pesisir Selatan district, West Sumatra. This study uses a quantitative approach with a survey method. The population in this study were all students of SMA Negeri 1 Sutera. The number of samples in this study were 55 students who were taken using random sampling technique. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics with percentage units. The results of the percentage of research surveys mostly show that they have never had sexual intercourse, kissing, holding sensitive areas (chest, papa, buttocks) chatting, video calling, walking and joking. While the percentage that shows the existence of this behavior is only a small part, which is less than 50%. Pages 474 to 483

Protection of the Religious Minorities' Rights Under the Iraqi Constitutions

Munir Hmood Dakheel Alshami, University of Thiqar, College of Law, Email: lawp1e23@utq.edu.iq

The feature of variety and human diversity of peoples and communities throughout the world is one of the consistent and widely recognized truths. Providing religious minorities with legal protection and the ability to practice their human rights in all areas of life. In order to establish their existence by preserving their historical and ideological heritage and distinguishing themselves from the rest of society, one of the issues that has received not only national legislators' attention, but has also become the focus of attention of the international community as a whole, as many international and regional organizations have confirmed. Especially in view of the substantial and growing breaches of religious minority' rights. "Civilization of Nations is measured by the way they treat minorities," says Mahatma Gandhi. Pages 484 to 500

Achieving Quality Printout through Preventive Maintenance Practices: Evidence from Alpha and Omega Press in the Kumasi Metropolis

Ebenezer Kofi Enninful1, Abraham Boakye-Amponsah2, Benjamin Lamptey3, 1,2,3Department of Graphic Design Technology, Takoradi Technical University, Email: 1kennifix@yahoo.com, 2boakyeamponsahabraham@yahoo.com

Quality output, Preventive and Maintenance schedules in press houses at Takoradi, Accra, Kumasi, Tema and many other parts across the country are practiced for optimum benefits and results. Nonetheless, Alpha and Omega Printing Press remains the best in the metropolis that practices constant and speedy maintenance on their machines. These proper maintenance routines have enabled them to satisfy and retain their customers to date via quality prints of all their works. The study's primary purpose was to establish a relationship between Preventive and Maintenance practices on printing machines and the quality of printing output of Alpha and Omega Printing Press, Kumasi metropolis in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. In the literature review, the researchers gathered related topics and treated them as such concerning the field of study. The study in terms of the research design, adopted a mixed-method approach of descriptive research and a quantitative research approach. As regards the research methodology, the questionnaire and the focus group discussion were the main instruments employed for gathering the needed data from the respective study respondents. The researchers administered the questionnaire and moderated the focus group discussion to ensure the validity and reliability of the data gathered with the instruments mentioned above. The population for the study included some employees and customers of Alpha and Omega Printing Press. A simple random sampling method was employed in the study, which falls under the probability sampling method. The data gathered from the employees of the press house established that there is a link between Preventive Maintenance on printing machines and the quality output of the press house, which makes them the best in the Ashanti Region. The researchers also deduced from the study that Preventive Maintenance on printing machines impacts the entire press production process. From the evidence, the impact increased automation, reduced the printing machines' failure rate, ensured consistent quality output, and increased productivity on a regular basis. Pages 501 to 532

Linkages Between Social Entrepreneurship and Youth Unemployment: The Search for Socio-Economic Opportunities in A Developing Country

Albert Tchey Agbenyegah, Durban University of Technology; Department of Applied Management; Riverside Campus- Pietermaritzburg Durban, Email: alberta@dut.ac.za

Though several philanthropic activities are unable to meet the desired expectations in terms of youth opportunities, it is assumed that social entrepreneurial activities and social enterprises are likely to create opportunities for the youth. The positive impact of social entrepreneurship on socio-economic challenges is well documented. In the global context, there is the tendency to develop social entrepreneurship in developing countries including South Africa for constructive contributions to unleash several opportunities to stimulate youth development. The primary objective of this paper is to highlight socio-economic contributions of social entrepreneurship in developing countries. Additionally, the results are aimed to ascertain definite theoretical knowledge about contributions of social entrepreneurship and social enterprises to youth unemployment in developing countries. To ascertain the set objectives, a qualitative survey approach was utilised to collect data for analysis. Purposive sampling tool was employed to source transcripts through interviews and focus group discussions were performed aided by content analysis for meaningful information out of raw dataset. Key repeated items that emerged throughout the interviews as well as the focus group discussions include ‘social enterprises’, ‘innovation’, ‘creative innovation’, ‘social entrepreneurs’, ‘non-profit ventures’, ‘welfare’, ‘opportunities’, ‘poor communities’, ‘social value creations’, ‘social impact’ and ‘marginalised societies. The author proposes a conceptual framework to illustrate the socio-economic contributions of social entrepreneurship in providing opportunities. Pages 533 to 557

Process Architecture Design for Thai Font Using Artificial Intelligence and Big Data

Boonchom Sudjita, Thana Sukvareeb, Prasong Praneetpolgrangc, a,bSchool of Information Technology, Sripatum University, Bangkok, Thailand, cComputer Department, Navaminda Kasatriyadhiraj Royal Air Force Academy, E-mail: asudjit99@gmail.com, bthana.su@spu.ac.th, cprasong_pr@rtaf.mi.th

This research aims to design a process architecture for the development of applied graphic fonts with artificial intelligence technology based on the big data of wisdom and identity of Thai Alphabet art and to design the character set prototype. There are 7 steps to conduct the research as follows; 1) data collection 2) interviews with experts, 3) data analysis, 4) process architecture design, 5) use of artificial intelligence in design, 6) creation of font prototype and 7) conclusions and evaluation. This study is both qualitative and quantitative research.  In terms of qualitative research, data was collected from in-depth interviews with 10 experts and the quantitative research was done by collecting data from questionnaires from a specific sample of 50 people and then analyzed the data to design a prototype character set. The results of the research showed that the designed process architecture was at the most appropriate level (  = 5.00).  In addition, when using artificial intelligence technology to assist in the research process, it can help identify local Thai identity, art and culture very well. Pages 558 to 572

The Crime of Defamation and Slander and Methods to Prove it Via the International Information Network in the Saudi regime and Jordanian law

Dr. Wael Mohammed Nusairat, Department of General Law, College of law, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University - Kingdom of Saudi Arabi, Email: wmnuserat@pnu.edu.sa

The technical and scientific development in modern media has lead to increasing the risk of damaging people’s reputation by committing acts slur and slander to others, as the technology is often times misused to undermine the honor, dignity, status, or making people fall victim to hatred and contempt, which requires confronting this phenomenon by research and study to understand this technology, monitor it and deal with it in legislation. That is why this study comes to aim to determine the adequacy of the traditional systems and rules placed to protect people’s reputation from any assault, and how adequate these are to the enormous development in various modern media outlets that are used to attack a person’s reputation and dignity. And in an attempt to clarify these goals, the study is divided into two researches, the first research discusses the concept of slur and slander, the second research discusses methods of committing slur and slander through the internet, and the digital forensic evidence for the crimes of slur and slander through the internet. The study was concluded with important results, recommendations, general indexes, sources, and references. Pages 573 to 591

The Potential of Bandung City as a World-Class City of Music, Design, And Culinary

Kurniadi 1, Syafei Ibrahim2, Badruzzaman3, Harris Purnama4, 1Department of Entrepreneurship, BINUS Business School Undergraduate Program, Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Indonesia ,2,3,4Department of Public Administration, Iskandar Muda University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia
Email: kurniadi003@binus.ac.id1, syafeibrahim@yahoo.com2,4,5

The study of Bandung's potential as a City of Music, Design, and Culinary was carried out to compile policy recommendations. The analysis results show that Bandung has become an icon of both music and design. Culinary, community networks have been built well in the internal and external environments. Spatially, the use of space for the development of Bandung as a City of Music, Design, and Culinary requires strict control of space utilization so as not to cause deviations in the use of space/transfer of functions. Based on the ecosystem of creative economy development identified positive and negative impacts, both for music, design, and culinary as a whole describes that HR actor; (1) more constraints on the procurement of skilled, creative, and talented human resources to develop their business, (2) constraints for music creative business actors, design and culinary to register to become members of community networks. Product factors are more too; (1) music, design, and culinary are innovative products that are prospective and competitive so able to encourage Bandung as a city of music, design, and culinary. (2) constrained by creative business actors, especially design and culinary, to register to obtain IPR. Market factors include; (1) open and growing publications through online media and (2) multiplier effects caused by significant and prospective thvelopment of creative music, design, and culinary efforts. While the R&D factor is more identifying that the average music, design, and culinary creative business actors do not have R & D units. Pages 592 to 633

Communicative Situation of Expressing Interest: Prototypical Approach

Galina Maximovna Kostyushkinaa, Alena Viktorovna Bondarevskaiab, aProfessor of Philology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Siberian Branch, Irkutsk Scientific Center, Lenin Street,11, Irkutsk, 664003, Russia bAssociate Professor of Saint-Petersburg State Mining University 2, 21st Line, Saint-Petersburg, 199106, Russia, Email: kostushkina@mail.ru, amicita@mail.ru

This paper addresses the communicative situation of expressing interest within the prototypical approach. It analyses a set of features of a prototypical situation of expressing interest. Modelling of non-prototypical situations in their linguistic representation is carried out. Based on the conducted analysis, it is revealed that in the prototypical situation of expressing interest, the addresser produces his intentional state and expresses interest in a verbally explicit way; the mental model of expressing interest in the addressee’s mind allows him to interpret the addresser’s intention, the speech behaviour of the addresser and addressee is cooperative, and the communicative situation is successful. If one of the prototypical features is not followed, the communicative situation of expressing interest moves into the non-prototypical category. The paper presents six basic models of non-prototypical situations of interest. Speech behaviour is followed by the cognominal and related emotional state of interest, positive emotions, as a rule. Communicative situations were taken from English fiction. Pages 634 to 649

Evaluative Study of Distance learning Policy during the Covid-19 Pandemic

Abdul Kodir1, A.Rusdiana2, Mumuh Muksin3, Ichsan Taufik4, 1,2,3,4Sunan Gunung Djati State Islamic University Bandung, Email: 1abdulkodir@uinsgd.ac.id, 2rusdiana@uinsgd.ac.id, 3muksin@uinsgd.ac.id, 4ichsan@uinsgd.ac.id

The purpose of composing this article is to evaluate the policy of distance learning programs at Private Islamic Religious College (PIRC) in Garut Regency, West Java Province, Indonesia during COVID-19 pandemic using the CIPP evaluation model. Quantitative methods are used in this study. Lecturers and officials from private Islamic religious universities became the primary sources of data collection. Secondary data is taken from scientific journals, books and the internet. The conclusion obtained from this study is that the level of achievement of distance learning programs in the context component consists of the established policies categorized as good with a score of 51% and the advantages and disadvantages of distance learning in private Islamic religious universities are categorized as good with a score of 57%. The input component consists of infrastructure in distance learning categorized as good with a score of 51% and the characteristics of resources in good category with a score of 54%. The process component consists of the distance learning process categorized as good with a score of 57% and distance learning interactions categorized as good with a score of 56%. The product component consists of distance learning outcomes categorized as good with a score of 47% and distance learning effectiveness categorized as good with a score of 57%. The result of the relationship between the CIPP evaluation and distance learning policies is 65%, which means it is strong and positive, so the existing policies are good. Pages 650 to 662

Disobedience of Sentul Village Community Towards Covid-19 Vaccination Policy

Moch. Fauzie Said, Lecturer of the Political Science Study Program, Faculty of Social and Political Affairs, Universitas Brawijaya, Building C FISIP, Ketawanggede, Kec. Lowokwaru, Malang City, East Java 65145. Orchid ID: 0000-00017811-8891. E-Mail: mfauziesaid@ub.ac.id

Covid-19 cases that have occurred in Indonesia have so far reached in remote rural areas, this thing is because of some villagers who become workers in big cities or indeed there are migrants who enter the villages. In response to this, several policies that have been carried out by the government, namely preventive and curative. Some of these policies include PSBB (Large-Scale Social Restrictions), PPKM Policy (Enforcement of Restrictions on Community Activities), Social Distancing Policy, Physical Distancing Policy.   Until now, the Covid 19 vaccination is implemented using 2 (two) vaccines, namely the Sinovac Vaccine and the Astra Zeneca Vaccine.  Taking the formulation of the problem 'Why is there a Defiance of the Sentul Village Community towards the COVID-19 Vaccination Policy?' By using a qualitative approach, this research describes the attempt of the Sentul village government, Jombang Regency by socializing at each event carried out on every occasion. The reasons (motivation) for the community to defiance of the COVID-19 vaccination policy are: Internal Barriers (1) Self-fear of injections, (2) Self-fear of vaccines, (3) Self-fear of the implications of vaccines, (4) Understanding and ideology, (5) Self-fear of being lawful and illegitimate from vaccines. Meanwhile, external barriers: (1) Information from online media that is often frightening, (2) Unwillingness to follow the bureaucracy of vaccine implementation, (3) Lack of socialization in the community as a whole, (4) Availability of vaccines and more vaccination implementers, so that there are no queues.  The attitude of the Sentul village government in overcoming internal problems is to vaccinate by visiting residents one by one to their homes: (a) Cooperate with the Police to vaccinate door to door, (b) Facilitate vaccinations for people with certain cases such as ODGJ (People with Mental Disorders) with doctors who understand how to communicate with ODGJ, (c) Socializing vaccination activities at every event carried out in Sentul village.  The recommendations given are mainly to reduce bureaucracy to prepare for obtaining vaccines so that it does not cause laziness, deterrence, and fear. Pages 663 to 684

New Era Management of Millennial Leadership Towards Emotional Intelligence Leadership in Higher Education

Samuel Tanasyah1, Bobby Kurnia Putrawan2, Yusak Tanasyah3, 1Doctoral Student, Universitas Pelita Harapan, Indonesia, 2Assistant Professor, Theological Studies, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Moriah, Indonesia, 3Assistant Professor, Christian Education Studies, Sekolah Tinggi Teologi Moriah, Indonesia. Email: 1tanasyah@yahoo.com, 2bkputrawan@gmail.com, 3ytanasyah@gmail.com

This study plans to see millennial leaders participating in responding to changes in the world, especially in the world of education. There is a "Shifting" in people's lives. There has been a big change in the world of technology, where now the internet is an inseparable part of people's lives. The emotionally intelligent leadership concept incorporates relevant emotional intelligence (EI) and leadership models, theories, and studies. Emotionally intelligent leaders make it easier to achieve desired objectives by focusing on context, self, and others. This research synthesizes this literature to provide a more comprehensive understanding of leadership in higher education, as well as a new integrative and process-oriented concept of emotionally intelligent leadership (EIL). Emotional intelligence and leadership are combined in this idea to generate a new construct. This paper will review and organize research and concept in emotional intelligence and leadership in higher education, and propose a consolidative, process-oriented Leadership concept to provide a framework for hypothesizing and practical suggestions for millennial leadership advance in the context of higher education. Pages 685 to 698

The Strategic Role of Human Resource Managers in Achieving Gender Equality in Employment in Saudi Arabia

Norah Ibrahim AlSalhi, Department of Administrative Sciences, the Applied College, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Email: nialsalhi@iau.edu.sa                                                               

Saudi Arabia has begun a series of significant changes aimed at accelerating the modernisation of their economic and social systems, including those targeted at strengthening the roles of women within the economy and society. This study examines the role of human resource managers in achieving gender equality in employment in Saudi Arabia, relying on secondary research to obtain information. Institutional theory is applied to discover the factors which influence human resource management practises in Saudi Arabia, the varied rates of development in the pillars (cognitive-cultural, normative, and Regulatory). From the research, it was found that the rate of development at the cultural-cognitive and normative levels is slower than the rate of change at the regulatory level. This means that change is occurring at a fast pace in Saudi Arabia for the laws and regulations but not for the culture,which puts human resource managers in a difficult situation as they are forced to develop a strategy which accounts for all these factors. In addition, as there are no previous studies on the strategic role of human resource managers regarding gender equality in employment in Saudi Arabia, the model by Ulrich (1997) is selected. This model helps managers and policymakers understand and determine how and to what degree human resource managers are involved in achieving gender equality by measuring the four roles of the human resource managers that the model provide (Ulrich, 1997). Finally, we provided many suggestions, such as implementing Ulrich’s model (1997) by using a survey to determine how and to what degree human resource managers practise the four roles of a human resources manager. Secondly, to achieve gender equality in employment, the human resource manager must adopt several practises to increase the number of women and attract them to the work environment in the organisation. To do so, the organisation must provide more flexibility and support during pregnancy and provide them with training courses to manage their extreme workloads. Pages 699 to 721
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