Students’ Cognitive Development Through Improvisations in a Theater Game-Based Approach

Norzuraina binti Mohd Nor1, Norasmah binti Mohd Nor2, Santhi A/P Letchumanan3, Mohd Fadzil bin Mohd Arif4, Halim bin Busno5, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris1, Institut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Perempuan Melayu2, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Tok Perdana3, Sekolah Kebangsaan Sultan Abdullah4, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Sultan Alauddin5

This study aims to examine students’ cognitive development during the teaching and learning of the topic of Mixed-media Paintings using a theater game-based approach. This study is based on a qualitative approach which involving 8 Form Five students who were selected as the study sample. Data were collected through observations where the researchers examined the learning process which involving five sessions, namely induction, perceptions of art, applications of art, expressions of art, and art in life. Teachers were provided with the modules of theater games and a teaching plan as a guideline for the theater game-based approach in teaching the subject matter based on Bloom’s taxonomic levels of mastery. Data was analyzed using Nvivo software to reveal students’ level of cognitive development based on the twenty-first century learning skills as they performed selected theater games during the learning of Fine Art Specialization. The finding shows that students made several spontaneous improvisations in performing the games in terms of voice intonations, gestures, movements, and emotional expressions. In performing in such games, the students demonstrated various levels of Bloom’s taxonomic skills in the cognitive, psychomotor, and affective domains, namely synthesis and analysis. Pages 1 to 12




Secondary Chinese Teacher Recruitment Examination Trends and Improvement Plan in Korea: Focusing on Questions from 2018-2021

Eun Young Jang, Department of Chinese Education, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, Seoul, Republic of Korea, Email address: j9902768@hufs.ac.kr

Studies on the Chinese secondary school teacher recruitment examination had been steadily conducted. This paper examined the types and trends of the current recruitment examination by targeting the recruitment exam questions from the 2018 academic year to 2021, on which there are almost no studies, and presented ways to improve the Chinese secondary school teacher recruitment examination in the future. There is a difference in the ratio of questions by year, but in general, the ratioof questions asked in Introduction to Chinese Language and Chinese Education Theory was high. The questions on Chinese conversation and Chinese reading did not appear at all, or even if they did, the ratio did not exceed 10%. And although the percentage of questions on Chinese culture course is not high, the questions consistently appear every year. This can be said to be related to the emphasis on comparison and understanding of mutual culture in the 2015 revised curriculum. This study presented improvement measures for the recruitment examination of Chinese secondary school teachers based on the results of analysis on questions from the 1st exam for the 2018-2021 school year and the evaluation contents of the 2nd exam. Pages 13 to 32




The Hospitality Students’ Experiences with Work-integrated Learning in TVET Colleges

Zandile Kubhekaa,  Mncedisi Christian Maphalalab, aUniversity of  South Africa, College of Education, Department of Curriculum and Instructional Studies, bNorth West University, School of Professional Studies in Education Studies, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1078-1985, Email: azandilekubheka@hotmail.com, bt25787810@nwu.ac.za

Work-integrated learning has been adopted in higher education worldwide as a strategy to transfer classroom activities to the workplace. There is a dearth of research in the South African context that seeks to explore the hospitality students’ experiences with work-integrated learning (WIL) in Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) colleges. Thus, this study sought to explore the students’ experiences with work-integrated learning in South African TVET colleges. The theories underpinning the study were the Experiential Learning Theory and Workplace Participatory Practices Theory. The study adopted a qualitative design comprising of 30 purposively selected students in 5 TVET colleges. A focus group discussion was used to gather data that was used to answer the research questions. Data was analysed using a thematic framework, following Braun and Clarke’s (2006) approach. The following themes resulted from the analysis: skills necessary for a hospitality graduate; students’ expectations and perceptions of WIL; students’ readiness for employment; support for students; resources, equipment, and infrastructure for WIL; work placements and the curriculum.  Pages 33 to 49




“The Time Machine” Social Innovation and Research-Creation Strategy for Risk Control in Informal Labor Communities

Gregorio Enrique Puello-Socarrás, ORCiD: https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7507-5937 - Industrial Design / Business Administration Proffessional - Safety and Health at Work Management Specialist - Master’s degree in Development Practice. Teacher and Researcher at the Corporación Universitaria Minuto de Dios - UNIMINUTO Bogotá, Colombia. Email: gpuellosoca@uniminuto.edu.cogregorio.puello@uniminuto.edu

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151007

Strategies to control occupational risk factors face various challenges in terms of their application and effectiveness, even more so when it comes to providing risk-control solutions under informal working conditions. Purpose: explore opportunities presented by the use of social innovation strategies and methodologies derived from research-creation to establish educational control measures for occupational risk factors, for recovery and recycling workers in Bogotá (Colombia). Methods and procedures: There were two main phases for this research: one aimed to understand the different risk posed to informal labor communities based on workplace inspection and risk assessment norms NTC4114 and GTC45, the other one was aimed to develop a research-creation and social innovation-based strategy, to co-create innovative solutions to address risk factors with the informal workers New Results: Risk conditions were measured for the first time with this group of informal workers and a social innovation creation was made to control risk factors and to dignify working conditions Conclusions: Informal work has precarious and uncontrolled risk. In addition, the systematic exclusion of informal workers from public health labor systems organized by national governments means that protective measures for this group of people are often ineffective or inadequate, or in the worst case, non-existent. Pages 50 to 72



The Challenges of Achieving Competitive Advantage at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ms. Fatima Abdullah Al-Melhama, Dr. Obaid Abdullah Al-Subaieb, a,bCollege of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

The study aims to identify the extent to which competitive advantage can be achieved across several areas (education, scientific research, community service, human resources, technology, and innovation) at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University (IAU) in Saudi Arabia. The study also aims to identify the most important challenges that prevent the achievement of competitive advantage across these areas. The descriptive approach was employed using a questionnaire as a tool of collecting data from a sample of (199) faculty members at the University. The results of the study showed a high degree of competitive advantage across the six areas. The results also indicated that many challenges prevent the achievement of competitive advantage. The most important of these challenges was the fierce local and international competition between universities. Pages 73 to 88

Leading Change and its Relationship with the Moral Spirit of the Faculty Members: An Applied Study on the University of Imam Abd Al-Rahman Bin Faisal in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Ms. Saja Suleiman Al-Turkia, Dr. Obaid Abdullah Al-Subaieb, aDeanship of Preparatory Year, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, bDepartment of Educational Administration, College of Education, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia.

The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between change leadership and the faculty morale at Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University. The researchers used the correlational descriptive approach. The sample consisted of 243 faculty members which constitutes (17%) of the total population (1428). The study used the questionnaire as a tool to collect data. The study data were processed using the statistical program (SPSS). The results of the study found that the degree of practicing change leadership skills among academic leaders at the University of Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal was "high". The results also revealed that the level of morale among the faculty members at the University of Imam Abdul Rahman bin Faisal was "high". The researchers also found a positive relationship between change leadership, and the level of morale among faculty members at the significance level (0.01). The study recommended several recommendations, the most important of which are: Encouraging academics to take initiative in new projects and ideas, contribute to the development of the educational system within the university, and support the university in the field of university research and university research. Pages 89 to 105

Poverty as an Impediment to Economic Growth and Development: Perspective on Education in Nongoma Area of Zululand District of Kwazulu- Natal

Iwaloye Bunmi Omoniyia, Bongani Thulani Gamedeb, Chinaza Uleanyac, a,b,cHuman and Social Sciences, University of Zululand

Poverty is more complex than just than it is because it is a determinant factor for the growth and development of the economy in the country and precisely in Nongoma.     The study argues that the impact of poverty has limit economic growth and development due to a poor education system that disadvantage learners from poor households from receiving quality education while many even drop out of school, some learners engaged in different criminal activities, because of the financial constraints. Amongst others, the study recommends joint efforts among all the stakeholders to alleviate poverty, political unrest, even distribution of income and resources in the Nongoma municipality. The study was anchored by the ecological theory of Urie Bronfenbrenner while the mixed method was adopted for the study. Pages 106 to 129

The Effect of Intellectual Capital on Achieving the Competitive Advantage of Jordanian Pharmaceutical Companies: A Case Study of Dar Al-Dawa Company

Majed Masadeh, Full Professor, Department of Business Administration, Zarqa University, Jordan

This study aimed to Highlight the role of intellectual capital and its components in achieving the competitive advantage of Jordanian Dar Al-Dawa Company, then to submit recommendations that should be taken into account for the intellectual capital to achieve competitive advantage. The study used descriptive and analytical approach and both secondary and primary data were collected, using questionnaire specially designated the to gather data form a sample consisted of (148) employees in the top and middle management (director, deputy/assistant director and head of department) in Dar Al- Dawaa Company. And the program used for measuring the data is Statistical Package for Social Science SPSS. The researcher used descriptive and statistical analysis.  The study reached a number of conclusions, including that there is a high level of Intellectual Capital dimensions at Dar Al- Dawaa Company, which also found to have a high level of   the Competitive Advantage", It also found a statistically significant impact of Intellectual Capital in their dimensions (Human capital, Structural capital, Relational capital) on Competitive Advantage. In light of the conclusions proposed some recommendations were presented for Dar Al-Dawaa Company in Jordan. That have been focused around continuity to develop its intellectual capital in order to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage in the market. Pages 130 to 150

Village Savings and Loan Associations as Resilient Factors in the Era of COVID-19 in Zimbabwe

Nyashadzashe Chiwawa1*, Norman Chivasa2, Henry Wissink3, 1University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Management, IT and Governance, 1ORCID NR: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5180-2631, 2University of KwaZulu-Natal, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance, 3University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa, Email, School of Management, IT and Governance, *Corresponding Author, Email: 1*chiwawan@ukzn.ac.za, 2chivasan@ukzn.ac.za, 3 wissinkh@ukzn.ac.za

This article provides insights into the capacities of village savings and loan associations scheme to building the resilience of members of the scheme. This is true of ordinary people in Zimbabwe who are faced with financial exclusion and economic doldrums and a collapsing financial sector.  In the era of COVID-19, in which normal life has been disrupted, village savings scheme is a type of enterprise that seeks to empower ordinary people who are exposed to a myriad of vulnerabilities such as financial exclusion, poverty and inequalities. The capacities by ordinary people to take responsibility for their own well-being through savings is an indication of local agency and resilience. Pages 151 to 161

Female School Leaders and the Fourth Industrial Revolution in South Africa

Virginia Naidooa, Onoriode Collins Potokrib*, a,bUniversity of Johannesburg, South Africa, *Corresponding author, Email: avirginia@clps.co.za, b*cpotokri@uj.ac.za, b*cnuvie@gmail.com

The study explored the leadership skills female leaders in South African schools require to be adequately prepared for the fourth industrial revolution (4IR) era. It was conducted with female education specialists, principals, deputy principals and heads of department at primary and secondary schools. Both private and public schools were selected. A generic qualitative approach was used with individual interviews to collect data. Data analysis was conducted using a thematic inductive approach. Themes were generated from clusters of information relating to the research questions. The findings include the skills required for females to effectively lead schools for the 4IR era to become better 4IR-aligned leaders. The study revealed that female leaders recognize the need to adjust their leadership skills to the rapidly changing technological environment in schools. The study further revealed that support for development is lacking in public schools while private schools offer more mentoring and coaching of leaders to become 4IR-aligned. It is thus clear that leadership support/development, especially in public schools, requires effective administration and communication to ensure that schools receive the level of support that is drafted and structured at national government level. Pages 162 to 180

Developing Rural Economies through Small to Medium Tourism Enterprise: the case of Matatiele and Cedarville in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

aDr Siyabonga Mxunyelwa, bDr Obert Matarinano, cProfessor Dinesh Vallabh, a,b,cWalter Sisulu University, Faculty of Business Science, Department of Tourism, Hospitality and Sport Management, Email: asmxunyelwa@wsu.ac.z

Globally, nations depend on small businesses as engines for economic growth. Small to Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs), as part of the small business sector, are increasingly becoming important in terms of job creation, wealth creation and driving economic growth in smaller rural geographic areas. Utilising a mixed research approach, the paper identifies characteristics of SMTEs in Matatiele and Cedarville with the intention of identifying specific ways in which they can be supported to attain their real potential in enabling economic development in rural environment. Purposive sampling method was used to select respondents and self-administered questionnaires utilised to gather relevant data from managers/owners. The results indicate that the rural tourism is dominated by female-owned enterprises primarily offering accommodation services. Most of the enterprises have been in operation for a period of more than five years which points to potential growth as they are able to survive. The results further show that the businesses that participated in the survey intent employing more full-time employees. Furthermore, the results underscore that there is lack of local government support to promote entrepreneurship in the SMTEs sector particularly those that are located in the rural environment. The findings elucidate the ability of SMTEs to greatly reduce the high unemployment in rural economies if appropriate systems are put in place to support these enterprises. These findings have implications for the national, provincial and local government spheres in South Africa in their quest to create job opportunities in rural areas through entrepreneurship and SMTEs in order to provide impetus to the Eastern Cape Province and South African Economy. This paper recommends that government creates an enabling environment for SMTEs to operate optimally in the rural environment. Pages 181 to 196

Crisis Management Practices and Emergency Preparedness of Private Universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain: Basis for Framework Development

Dr. Yusuf Janahi, PhD from University of Bradford, UK, Ahlia University, Kingdom of Bahrain, Email: yjanahi@ahlia.edu.bh

The COVID-19 pandemic, unique as it seems, has a long-term effect on human capital, productivity, and behaviour. Consequently, the sudden closures of schools, colleges and universities highlighted the relevance of crisis management and emergency preparedness which have not received sufficient attention from universities leadership preparation programs. Likewise, scholars are currently digging deeper into the subject which demands deeper understanding of its theoretical underpinnings. This paper aimed to propose a reliable and valid development model that would best fit the crisis management practices and emergency preparedness of the private universities in the Kingdom of Bahrain. To understand the problem, a qualitative research method was used. Documentary analysis and WhatsApp technology were utilized to gather data in line with the current of practice of social distancing to contain the spread of the Corona virus. Consequently, purposive sampling technique was used wherein samples were chosen based on the knowledge of a population and the purpose of the study. The results of the semi-structured interview revealed a negative response from the respondents when they were asked about the practice of crisis management policies and procedures within their university. This was supported by the results of the documentary analysis which has underscored the need for training programs and a felt-need to establish a crisis management and emergency preparedness plan which will serve as a framework within which the university will operate in the event of a crisis. Pages 197 to 204

The Development of Engineering TVET Instructor Standard Teaching Competency Framework for Vocational College

Muhd Khaizer Omar, Khamsiah Ismail, Arnida Abdullah, How Shwu Pyng, Fakulti Pengajian Pendidikan, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: khaizer@upm.edu.my

Individual competency consists of a set of knowledge, skills and personnel characters to execute specific responsibilities and designated tasks. A competent person upholds the highest integrity and ensures perfection to fulfill self-satisfaction and meeting the standard. Competency can be classified into myriad components,  known as generic and specific skills. In light of the daunting issues on lack of skills among graduates claimed by the industries, Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) educators have been pointed out to resolve the issue. The key aspect discussed on TVET instructor competency components is to empower graduates' employability. Thus, TVET instructors are requested to comply with the necessity to upgrade their theoretical and practical knowledge content and become adroit to compensate for the 21st-century teaching and learning environment. Emphasizes are from the development of teacher professional characteristics and specific competency traits in pedagogical aspects as well as soft skills training to synchronize with the ever changing educational milieu. This research employed a qualitative strand of a case study by compiling the narrative collected from the structured interview to obtain research data. The participants were selected among teachers, students, and vocational college directors in Selangor, Malaysia. The objective of the study is to explore the required competency components of the TVET instructors in engineering-related courses. The data was compiled using NVivo software and thematically analyzed by extracting and determining the ‘meaning-making process’ of participants to answer the formulated research questions. The findings of the study incited personality and values, ethics and professional practices, knowledge-development, professional skills, effective management, socializing skill, and pedagogical skill as pivotal themes emerged from the analysis. It is hoped that the findings will initiate a significant impact particularly to the Engineering TVET instructors at the vocational colleges. More importantly, it is to execute the competency components and drive instructors’ motivation to remain in the teaching profession and enhance the quality of TVET education as well as demonstrate professionalism among instructors.  Pages 205 to 227

Government Governance in the Utilization of Traditional Forests in Kampar District, Riau, Indonesia

Winda Lestaria, Ahmad Fitra Yuzab*, Syahrul Akmal Latifc, Rendi Prayudad, Khairul Rahmane, *Corresponding Author, a,b,c,d,eRiau Islamic University, Email: awindalestari2113@gmail.com, b*fitra.ip@soc.uir.ac.id, csyahrul72@soc.uir.ac.id, drendiprayuda@soc.uir.ac.id, ekhairul.ip@soc.uir.ac.id

This article wants to discuss about government governance in the use of the Rumbio customary forest in Kampar Regency, Riau, Indonesia. The current forest area is 64% of the 7.4 million hectares of customary areas mapped by the Alliance for Indigenous Peoples of the Archipelago (Aman). According toThe Minister of Environment and Forestry (LHK) (in 2020 granting access to forest area management through Social Forestry covers an area of ​​4.062 million hectares, with the number of SK Permits or rights totaling 6,464 SK units for the community totaling 821,371 families. Recognition and designation of customary forests covering 35,150 hectares scattered in 65 indigenous peoples with 36,438 families and indicative of customary forests covering an area of ​​915,004 hectares in 22 provinces and 48 districts. Social forests in Riau are 108 thousand hectares of a potential 1.05 million hectares, for all of Indonesia covering 4 million hectares. The results of the investigation by the Kampar Indigenous Forest Acceleration Recognition Team (TP2HAK) that there are two customary forests that have been recognized, namely the imbo putui kenegerian petapahan customary forest covering 251 hectares and the kenegerian kampa customary forest covering an area of ​​156.8 hectares. Kampar District has at least eight areas that are included in the customary forest area. However, so far only seven customary forest areas have been submitted for issuance of SK to the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, two of which have been issued decrees. Meanwhile, the other five proposals have not been issued yet because they are still in process. Pages 228 to 238

Saudi Arabia’s Social Commentary Art in Photography

Roba Abdullah Alromiha,b , Husaini Yaacobb, aCollege of Education, Qassim University, Qassim, Saudi Arabia, bFine Art Department, School of the Arts, Universiti Sains Malaysia, USM, Penang, Malaysia, Email: robaalromih84@gmail.com (Roba Abdullah Alromih); husaini@usm.my (Husaini Yaacob)

Photographers have their artistic creativity to express relevant social comments about the global social trend. In this respect, the current Saudi photographers have no exception. Compared to other countries in the West, images which publicize comments towards a society’s norm, also known as social commentary, images that have been a part of Saudi’s daily life since decades ago were produced as a way of expression. Unfortunately, photography in Saudi Arabia has attracted little scientific and international attention. Thus, this study intended to get a clear picture of the public's point of view on photographic representation and its role in social commentary, portrayal of social comments from Saudi photographers as a way to better understand the ideas, practices and attitudes of Saudi photographic artists. When there are limitation of open criticisms in Saudi, photographers tend to express their thoughts to the public through photography. Photographs were chosen from photographic artists who pro-duce extreme expressions of creations through their photographs. This study provides insight about public understanding on how contemporary photographic artists of Saudi Arabia utilize photographic images to comment on sociocultural circumstances of the country in relation to social norms, cultural manifestations, and politics overall. Pages 239 to 258

Social Networking Sites and Political Knowledge: Factors that Affect Individual’s Knowledge Acquisition from Facebook and Twitter

Sara Basyouni, Middlesex University

This paper seeks to investigate the impact of social network sites (SNS) specifically Facebook and Twitter on the acquisition of the political knowledge. Further, it attempts to identify the extent to which both political interest and level of users’ education affect this process. Results indicate that only Twitter’s usage is positively correlated with political knowledge acquisition, in the sense that Facebook is ineffective in political learning education; a result that bears many important implications for election campaigns, political socialization and diffusion of political knowledge. This paper also shows that individual’s political interest and level of education determine type and amount of knowledge people gain from SNS. An interesting result of this paper states that SNS effect on learning domain specific knowledge is more powerful than on the general one. Data of this paper was obtained from Egyptian youth where 311 respondents were randomly selected via online survey. Pages 259 to 275

Contribution of Personality Competencies and Social Competencies of Tutor Teachers in Increasing the Value of Alternative Education National Examinations for Citizens Learning Equality Package C in Banten Province

Sudadio, Nandang Faturohman, Professor Lecturer, in the Faculty of Teacher Training and Education Sciences and Lecturer in Postgraduate Doctoral Program, Sultan Ageng Tirtayasa University, dr.dio@untirta.ac.id

Pamong teacher is one of the components of the educator who has a very strategic central role in supporting the implementation of the equality education process activ ubi. 9mities in various educational institutions outside the school whose program includes equality of packages in the province of Banten in particular and in general throughout the region. To find out the strategic role of the tutor teacher, researchers on this occasion presented article writing from the research results with research problems:”  Contribution of personality competencies and social competencies of tutor teachers in increasing the value of national equality tests for citizens learning package C in Banten “In order to get the data as needed, researchers used a data collection tool in the form of a questionnaire that was distributed to thirty civil servant teachers as respondents to the main data source, then the data obtained on the answers to the questionnaire, then carried out processing and analyzing data quantitatively using correlation statistical formula product Moment Person. Based on the results of processing and data analysis, it can be stated that: 1) the contribution of competitor to the tutelary teacher's personality in increasing the national test scores of equality in the package C learning population in Banten province is stated to have can be stated as contributing enough (0.242), 2) the ratio of equality in learning package C residents in Banten Province was stated to can be stated as contributing enough ( 0.236 ), thus contributing personality competencies and social competencies which had a role as a driving force in supporting the implementation of pedagogic competence and professional competence, meaning the tutor teacher would carry out the task properly if the condition of the personality and privacy of the tutor teacher is in a conducive condition. Looking at the level of contribution of the personal competencies and social competencies of the civil servant teachers who contribute relatively equally, this condition shows that personality competencies and social competitiveness are one entity, where each other is interconnected, needs each other, and supports each other for the implementation of educational process activities held at non-formal education, especially equality of package C. Pages 276 to 286


Customer Satisfaction: Refunds from European Airlines during COVID-19

Oluwaseun Alexander Dadaa,b, Sunday Adewale Olaleyec, Ismaila Temitayo Sanusid, George Obaidoe, Kehinde Arulebaf, aDepartment of Computer Science, University of Helsinki, Pietari Kalmin katu 5, 00560 Helsinki, Finland, bThe School of Software, Lekki-Lagos, Nigeria, cOulu Business School, Department of Marketing, Oulu Business School, Department of Marketing, Management and International Business, University of Oulu, Finland, dSchool of Computing, University of Eastern Finland, 80100 Joensuu, Finland, eDepartment of Computer Science and Engineering, University of California, San Diego, United States, fDepartment of Information Technology, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa. Email: alexander.dada@helsinki.fi, sunday.olaleye@oulu.fi, ismaila.sanusi@uef.fi, gobaido@eng.ucsd.edu, arulebak@gmail.com

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected most industries globally and has led to many sectors coming to a standstill. One of the major problems it has caused concerns restrictions on movement as well as travel bans. These restrictions have negatively affected the transport industry, and especially aviation, worldwide. This paper analyses reviews given by passengers to different European airlines regarding refunds during the pandemic. The data was extracted during January 2020 and February 2021. According to the results, over 94 per cent of the customers were not satisfied with the services they received. Airline names turned out to be negatively correlated with the final overall ratings of the airlines, indicating that the higher the negative perception of the name, the lower the passengers’ ratings of the airline. Ninety per cent of the passengers concerned flew Economy Class and 27 per cent of them were citizens of the United Kingdom: 88 per cent of them were travelling for “leisure”. The vast majority of flights originated in London (9%), and the busiest route was London to Stockholm. The city with the highest number of layovers was Istanbul. Pages 287 to 304

Investigating the Influence of Teacher Characteristics on Quality Implementation of HIV and AIDS Education in Selected South African Schools

Mzimela, A.M., Nzima. D.R., Ndlovu, B.H., Sibanda, M., Kutame, A.P., Gafos, M., & Ajani, O.A., Faculty of Education, University of Zululand, South Africa. MzimelaAM@unizulu.ac.za, oaajani@gmail.com

The instructional delivery of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education in many South African schools has long been characterized with difficulties. Though much has been accomplished in terms of guiding policies on HIV/AIDS education in schools, the effective implementation of the stated policies has remained worrisome. The key issues revolve around who should implement these policies in schools and whether the characteristics of whoever is in charge of implementation have any bearing on execution and quality. The study adopted elements of the Contextual Interaction Theory (CIT) to underpin this study, to provide insights into how teacher characteristics such as motivation, cognition and power may influence effective implementation of HIV/AIDS education in schools. The relationship between the characteristics of teachers and the quality of policy implementation, using questionnaires as data collection instrument was established. A total of 371 questionnaires were retrieved from Life Skills and Life Orientation teachers from 28 different primary and secondary schools in rural and urban settings. The respondents for the instrument were selected through a systematic sampling technique. The questionnaires were analyzed with SPSS version 22 for basic descriptive statistics to interpret the results, establishing the binary regression modelling, to identify factors influencing the implementation of high-quality HIV and AIDS education. Findings revealed that 83% of Life-Skills and Life-Orientation teachers were implementing HIV and AIDS education in their classrooms, whereas 17% of teachers were not. Some of the teachers' qualities that influenced HIV/AIDS education implementation in the selected schools were (a) confidence, (b) comfort, (c) capability, (d) knowing the contents of HIV and AIDS policy, (e) time, and (f) support. The binary logistic regression model revealed that support from colleagues and superiors, with the construct "strongly agree" being significant at the 5% level (p=0.038), and comfort in handling sexuality issues in class, with the constructs ", strongly agree" and "agree significant" also at the 5% level (p=0.038), were teacher characteristics that significantly influenced the quality implementation of policies. The study, therefore, recommends that teachers should be given enough support to enhance the teaching of HIV/AIDS education in schools. Adequate and regular workshops/training should be designed for teachers to effectively deliver HIV/AIDS education to instil and promote the required development of these characteristics in teachers. Pages 305 to 328

Effective Learning Skill Implication on Labour Market: Perspective for Community Growth and Development

Iwaloye Bunmi Omoniyia, Gamede Bongani Thulanib, a,bUniversity of Zululand, Human And Social Sciences

Learning is a lifelong process in which people apply what they've learned to deal with new situations, form new connections, and solve new issues. Learning at school must not be viewed as sufficient for resolving everyday problems; therefore, new skills must be learned and developed that are practical and can help people gain employment in the labor market. The problem of unemployment presently exists all across the world. However, individuals who have obtained the essential skills will find work in any circumstances. This research looks at the abilities that university graduates need to be employable or self-sufficient in their own enterprises. The study was conducted using a survey-style descriptive research design. The study gathered data from a sample of 100 respondents via a self-designed questionnaire titled "Effective skills for the Labor Market and Implications for Community Development." Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the acquired data. The study's results reveal, among other things, that there is a strong association between effective labor skills and employability, and that employability is significantly related to enhanced living, which is a measure of community development It is therefore advised that graduates be equipped with effective skills that will lead to their productivity in the labor market in order for them to be gainfully employed in order to contribute to the development of their individuals as well as their communities. As a result, their living conditions will improve, and they will be able to make a difference in their communities. Pages 329 to 341

Kartu Prakerja (Pre-Employment Card) Policy and Its Impact on Economy and Community Income

Suryadia, Emi Syarifb, Yuniarti Tri Suwadjic, Ardhian Kurniawatid, Hennigusniae, Ivan Lilin Suryonof, Beni Teguh Gunawang, Nurlia Rahmatikah, Faizal Amir P. Nasutioni, Nur Siti Annazahj, Zelius Ragilliawank, Firdausi Nuzulal, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,h,i,j,k,lPolicy Development Center, Ministry of Manpower, Email: asuryadi.value@gmail.com, bemi.elmyanda@gmail.com, cyuniartits85@gmail.com, ddheant85@gmail.com, ehenigusnia@alumni.ui.ac.id,fivanlilins@gmail.com,gbeni.teguhg@gmail.com,  htiikaa.fad@gmail.com, ifaiz10march@gmail.com, janazah.siti@gmail.com, kzellius.ragiliawan@gmail.com, lfirdausinuzula.02225@gmail.com

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151025

This Kartu Prakerja (Pre-Employment Card) Policy Study aims to analyze the impact of the government's 2021 budget allocation of IDR 30 Trillion (US$ 2.065 billion) on the Indonesian economy and the increasing of community income, as well as the benefits and drawbacks of implementing the pre-employment card program. The novelty of this study is regarding to its study ability to find solutions for quantitative government budget allocation policies in the context of policy making. The results show that the government's budget allocation for the Pre-Employment Card Program is able to increase Indonesia's Economic Growth by 0.23 percent and community income by 0.53 percent. Pages 342 to 360

Rhetorical Strategies in Thai TEDx Talks

Thinnawat Sroikudrua, Ph.D.1, Piyaporn Punkasirikul, Ph.D.2, Suphachai Tawichai, Ph.D.3, 1Department of Thai Language, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, 2Department of English Language, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Khon Kaen University, Thailand, Corresponding author, 3Department of Thai Language, Faculty of Arts, Silpakorn University, Thailand, Email: 2ppiyaporn@kku.ac.th

The objective of this study is to examine types and functions of rhetorical strategies in Thai TEDx Talks. In Thailand, TEDx Talks have been organized by 8 local communities:  Kasetsart University, Chulalongkorn University, Khon Kaen University, Chiang Mai University, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Mahidol University, and Silpakorn University. These Thai TEDx Talks are also shared on YouTube. The data of this study, therefore, was selected from the top-five most viewed talks of each community on YouTube, and a total of 40 talks presented by 40 speakers from diverse backgrounds were analysed. The analytical frameworks are adapted from Angkapanichkit (2014)’s rhetorical strategies in Thai public discourse and Lucas (2015)’s structure of a public speech. The findings reveal 5 rhetorical strategies: structural repetition, lexical repetition, the use of rhymes, the use of songs or poetry, and the use of mottos or quotations. Among these 5 strategies, structural repetition was the most frequently used strategy in Thai TEDx Talks. Moreover, in certain talks, two strategies such as structural repetition and rhymes were used in the same statement. In addition, it has been found that although the talks were mostly delivered in the Thai language, some speakers used English and a dialect in their talks as well. Each speaker selected the rhetorical strategies based on their careers, speaking skills, styles and preferences, including the backgrounds of the audiences. These strategies were employed by the speakers to reinforce their ideas and to make their speech attractive, memorable, inspiring, and powerful. Pages 361 to 378  

The Economy of Devotion in Northwest Iberian Sanctuaries

Anxo Rodríguez Lemos, University of Santiago de Compostela, Email: a.rodriguez.lemos@usc.es

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151028

In the Modern Era, devotional practices at sanctuaries in the northwest of the Iberian Peninsula left an economic trail associated with fulfilment of promesas or vows, which tended to be local in nature. Behind this devotion or curiosity, the Church and its lay and ecclesiastical administrators found a religious universe in which local devotion in the form of offerings or ex-votos obtained validation from the community, which accepted it as a bridge between the earthly and the divine. The administration of the material goods left at the sanctuaries in thanks was governed and managed hierarchically. Material profit often took precedent over spiritual gain, detracting from religious aspects in favour of internal control groups based on economic factors. Pages 379 to 401


Cathedral Clergy in the Iberian Peninsula in the Early Modern Period: The Example of the City of León

María José Pérez Alvarez, University of León, ORCID: 0000-0001-5490-3895, Email: mjpera@unileon.es

The aim of this study was to analyse the canons in the cathedral chapter of the city of León, from the broad perspective of social history. I shall focus on their social origins, their access to the institution, their family connections and the composition of their households. Demography is closely associated with social history and shall be used to determine the age at which they became chapter members or died. The main sources used were the blood purity documents and the Récesit books, which recorded all the stages of an individual’s ecclesiastical career, from the award of a prebend until his death or transfer, although those responsible for record-keeping were not always as meticulous as one might have wished. Other sources consulted besides these documents included the family book of the Catastro of Ensenada (a large-scale census carried out in Spain in 1749), deeds contained in notary public records and the chapter records. Pages 402 to 415 

Strategies of the Elite of the Ancien Regime for Obtaining Prebends: The Chapter of the Cathedral of Santiago de Compostela

María Seijas Montero, University of Vigo, ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6173-2200, Email: mariaseijas@uvigo.es

In the Modern Age, the family was the institution in charge of guaranteeing any possibilities of social mobility for different groups. In theory, positions in the Church could not be formally inherited. However, in different cathedral chapters, numerous individuals interceded for a relative, resorting to instruments of transmission such as resignations and coadjutorships. Thus, the prebendaries helped their relatives to move up in their ecclesiastical career. Starting from this premise, we intend to detail, in the first place, the characteristics of the forms of access to the Compostela chapter based on the vacancy and its motivations. Secondly, we will analyse relations of kinship within the association. The intention is to demonstrate that the existence of these networks resulted in the formation of lineages that were perpetuated in the chapter for several generations. Finally, the strategies used by some families to move up the social ladder are traced. Pages 416 to 433

Rule of Organizational Culture and Organizational Climate in Improving Teacher Performance During the Covid-19 Pandemic

Mirhamida Rahmaha, Noermijati Noermijatib, Achmad Sudiroc, Mintarti Rahayud, a,b,c,dDoctorate Program Management Department, Faculty of Economics and Business, University Brawijaya, Malang, Indonesia, Email: amirhamidar@gmail.com

This study examines the direct and indirect effects of organizational culture and organizational climate on teacher performance (TP) through spiritual work motivation (SWM). Designed as an explanatory research which aims to provide an explanation of the causal relationship between variables through hypothesis testing and aims to obtain appropriate testing in drawing causal conclusions. The sample of this research is 180 respondents of Islamic boarding school teachers in Madura Regency using stratified random sampling. This study uses PLS analysis (Partial Least Squares regression) with the SmartPLS version 3.0 program resulting that organizational culture and organizational climate do not directly affect TP but indirectly affect TP through SWM. The results of this study found that organizational culture and organizational climate directly did not significantly affect TP. Meanwhile, indirectly, organizational culture and organizational climate affect TP through SWM. This shows that SWM is able to bridge the influence of organizational culture and organizational climate on TP, which can be interpreted that organizational culture and organizational climate can have a good effect on TP when accompanied by SWM owned by Islamic boarding school teachers in the Madura area. Pages 434 to 452

The Proposed of Social Media Strategy Framework for Private Businesses

Kritcha Yawiseda, Darlin Apasrawiroteb, a,bFaculty of Business, Economics and Communications, Naresuan University, Thailand, Email: aKritchay@nu.ac.th (Corresponding Author)

This research study investigates the current situation of Social Media (SM) usage by private sector businesses. This paper also proposes a SM strategy framework aimed at helping on the alignment of the business strategy. This study is an empirical research with concurrent mixed method approach to collect data from data from business owners, senior IT and marketing managers, using 418 businesses from surveys, incorporating semi-structured interviews from 21 different businesses. The findings reveal that the use of SM is relatively superficial and ad hoc in the absence of a formal integrated marketing strategy and policy framework. Business size, sector, type, age of business and leadership knowledge and skills of Marketing and IT are critical factor for SM in strategy formulation. Additionally, the integration of both findings has further extended into the development of proposed practical framework called a ‘SM strategy house’ to illustrate how SM should be carried out from a business’s strategic perspective. The limitations of the study are its subjective and self-reported nature of the data. Thus, the study focuses on a single developing country may limit the generalizability of the findings to other countries. Pages 453 to 474

Public Relations in Jordanian Governmental Sector Functions, Communicative Strategies and Activities - A Survey Study on Jordanian Ministries

Dr. Nawzat Abu Al-Asal1, Dr. Mikhled Al-nawafah2, 1Yarmouk University, Jordan, Irbid. 2Al-Khwarizmi Applied University College, Jordan, Amman. E-mail: 1nawzat25@yahoo.com, 2m.nawafha@khawarizmi.edu.jo

The current study sought to answer the following major question: What is the reality of public relations in Jordanian governmental sector? The study followed what public relations practice in this sector through their (functions, communicative strategies and activities). To get the information and especial field data related to the study, the instrument of the questionnaire was designed and applied to (22) ministries included (98) individuals from directors and practitioners using the comprehensive survey method. The study concluded with a set of results, the most prominent were: the public relations bodies practiced all their functions with a high degree and came in the first rank (communication function, followed by evaluation, planning and research). These bodies applied the communicative strategies with a high form; in the first rank came the strategy of (information, then persuading, agreement and dialogue). A lot of communicative activities were introduced that contained various contents with a high degree foremost of publishing activity represented in (news materials, press release, images, drawings and statistics). Pages 475 to 501

Review of Wage Increase Indonesian Migrant Workers Domestic Sector in Taiwan

Suryadia, Hennigusniab, Ivan Lilin Suryonoc, Firdausi Nuzulad, Baskoro Putra Adityae abcdePolicy Development Center, Ministry of Manpower of Indonesia, Jl. Jenderal Gatot Subroto Kavling 51

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151029

Indonesia is a country that places the largest number of migrant workers in Taiwan dominated by female workers with the majority working in the domestic sector. However, the minimum wage of domestic sector Indonesian Migrant Workers working in Taiwan has not increased since 2015 at NT$ 17,000. In the meantime, the minimum wage for non-domestic workers increased annually until 2020 to NT$ 23,800. In addition to that, the amount of overtime wages of NT$ 567 is still small compared to the wages of local domestic workers. Novelty of this study is the composition of the model of adjustment of the minimum wage and overtime wage of Indonesian domestic workers in Taiwan based on academic studies. Wage adjustment using Prorate approach, namely domestic Indonesian Migrant Workers wages, is calculated using Taiwan's minimum wage increase growth approach starting from 2016 – 2020 and for overtime wages following the rules applicable in Taiwan Labor Standard Act Articles 24, 32, and 36.  Over the past 4 years Taiwan's minimum wage has increased by 5% annually from 2017 to 2019, and 3% in 2020. The minimum wage of the domestic sector Indonesian Migrant Workers if it follows Taiwan's minimum wage growth becomes NT$ 20,222. Based on the calculation of the minimum wage, the overtime wage per day (≥ 8 hours) is NT$ 1,067. Pages 502 to 520

Path Modeling of Online Learning Indicators and Learners’ Satisfaction During Covid-19 Pandemic

Musa Adekunle Ayanwalea, Jumoke Iyabode Oladeleb, a,bDepartment of Science and Technology Education, Faculty of Education, University of Johannesburg, South Africa. ahttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7640-9898, bhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0225-7435, Email: aayanwalea@uj.ac.za, bjumokea@uj.ac.za

With upsurge of Covid-19, many educational institutes at basic and post-basic level had shifted paradigm from top-bottom teaching and learning process, and passive to a more interactive, collaborative approach in which learners and instructor co-create the learning process. Thus, the goal of this paper is to explain and predict the endogenous construct of learners' satisfaction in the Partial Least Square (PLS) path model through four exogenous constructs namely; content quality, learners’ quality, system quality and service quality respectively. A non-experimental design of correlational research type was used. The sample consisted of 501 drawn senior secondary school students (K-12) of Lagos Central Senatorial District, Lagos State, Nigeria. Two instruments were used, and data obtained were subjected to a two-step technique to composite based structural equation modeling; Measurement and Structural model. Also, the construct validity and reliability were established using average variance extracted (AVE), heterotrait-monotrait ratio of correlations (HTMT) and MacDonald Omega. The significance of the hypothetical constructs' relationship was assessed using a structural model. The findings supported the hypothesised direct constructs relationship except for service quality. The authors concludes that in order to promote learners’ satisfaction in online learning during Covid-19, it would be apt for school managers and instructors to direct efforts on the content quality, learners' quality, and system quality because they are essential ingredients in ensuring satisfaction of online teaching. Consequently, it was recommended that both public and private schools should integrate these factors into their virtual teachings. Pages 521 to 541

Tracing Art Music Compositions and Composers in Malaysia

Tazul Izan Tajuddin1, Rayner Naili2, Md Jais Ismail3, 1,2,3Faculty of Music, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), Shah Alam, Malaysia, Email: 3mdjais@uitm.edu.my

Malaysian music encompasses many different genres. It encompasses a wide range of genres that reflect the country's many ethnic groups, including Malay, Chinese, Indian, Dayak, Kadazan-Dusun, Bajau, Orang Asli, Melanau, and others. This paper reports the development of art music includes the art platform and composers in Malaysia. Before the establishment of Malaysian Philharmonic Orchestra (MPO) there has not been a consistent platform for art music. Occasionally some private organizations, National Symphony Orchestra and National Choir of Malaysia performed new works by composers, but the latter mainly focus on existing repertoires or arrangements. It is found that Malaysian geographic crossroads of many cultural paths, which give a rich variety of musical traditions. However, Malaysian new music composers had struggled for aesthetic integrity due to the discord of a state-induced cultural agenda that highly favoured ‘syncretic’ and locally popular idioms. Collectively Malaysian composers’ works have been performed internationally in a total 31 countries winning or being finalists in more than 20 composition competitions. Since 2000, art music composers have become more active than before due to some platforms being organized by organizations, institutions and composers’ society. Pages 542 to 560

Challenges Facing HRM Practitioners in Achieving Organisational Effectiveness in South African State-Owned Enterprises

Prof. Bongani Innocent Dlaminia, Dr. Luther-King Junior Zoglib*, Dr. Arvid Muzanenhamoc, a,b,cDepartment of Applied Management, Durban University of Technology, South Africa, *Corresponding author, Email: adlaminibi@dut.ac.za, b*luther-kingz@dut.ac.za, carvid263@yahoo.com

The South African state-owned enterprises (SOEs) have drawn criticism in the country concerning their performance. Retrenchments and government bailouts have been resorted to for South African SOEs in a bid to avoid liquidation. As a result, Human Resource Management is regarded as a source of organisational competence which aims at improving employee morale, reducing cost of operations and quality service improvement. An investigation was undertaken at a selected South African SOE to examine the challenges facing human resource professionals in obtaining organisational competitiveness. A qualitative research design was applied, and interviews were used on human resource practitioners who occupy departmental supervisory positions. The study revealed that Human Resources departments experienced challenges such as lack of technology, high labour turnover, and not attracting skilled technical personnel thus impending company competitiveness. Pages 561 to 571

The Use of Modern Technologies for the Formation of Professional Skills in the Field of Road Transport Operation

Akhmetov Linar Gimazetdinovich1, Abdulgazis Umer Abdullayevitch2, Mykhniuk Maria Ivanovna3, 1Kazan Federal University, Russian Federation, 2,3Crimean Engineering and Pedagogical University the name of Fevzi Yakubov, Russian Federation, Email: 1aling@list.ru

The article deals with the organization of the formation of professional skills of bachelors in the field of road transport operation during practical classes, identifies the problems that arise in the planning of practical classes, justifies the use of training and case technologies in the course of practical classes, based on the use of modern diesel engine control systems, describes the stages of the process of forming professional skills. Pages 572 to 581

Influences of Collaboration Strategy towards Firm Performance of Logistics Business in Thailand

Thanyanan Boonyooa, Kanokorn Boonmakerdb, Wornpahol Sangtianc, Sucharat Boonyood, aLecturer of Master of Business Administration Program, Southeast Asia University, Bangkok, Thailand, bFaculty of Business Administration, Ramkhamhaeng University, Bangkok, Thailand, cMarketing Manager, Ekarat Engineering Public Company Limited, Bangkok, Thailand, dLecturer of Finance and Banking Program, Faculty of Management Science, Nakhon Pathom Rajabhat University, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, Email: aThanyanan7@gmail.com, bBoonmakerd@hotmail.com, cWsangtian@gmail.com, dAj.sucharat@gmail.com

This study aimed to study whether the structural equation model has a significant impact toward firm performance of logistics business in Thailand or not and how its significance was. Questionnaire was implemented in this study by collecting the data from 720 entrepreneurs in logistics business in Thailand. The results of the study reveal that firm performance gets a direct impact on the competitive advantage in competitive differentiation, cost leadership, and quick response aspects. Furthermore, it showed that it had an indirect impact between collaboration strategy and logistics capability aspects; however, the competitive advantage in differentiation, cost leadership, and quick response had direct impacts on logistics capabilities. Furthermore, based on indirect impacts of collaboration strategy factor, the collaboration strategy could contribute higher firm performance when each business promoted logistics capability and competitive advantage efficiently. Pages 582 to 595

Challenges in Research & Innovation During the Pandemic Era: Malaysians’ Perspectives

Ahmad Yunus Mohd Noor1, Asmilyia Mohd Mokhtar2, 1Senior Lecturer at Research Centre for Theology and Philosophy, Faculty of Islamic Studies, and Associate Research Fellow at the Institute of Islam Hadhari, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600, BANGI, Selangor, Malaysia, 2Ph.D. candidate at Faculty of Major Languages Study, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Bandar Baru Nilai, 71800, NILAI, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, *(Corresponding author), Email: 2asmilyia24@gmail.com 1a_yunus@ukm.edu.my;

The COVID-19 pandemic has ravaged many nations economically and socially. This study attempts to analyze Malaysia researchers at the tertiary level on their perspectives towards challenges in research and innovation during the Pandemic Era throughout almost two-year of the lockdown. This article undertakes an analysis of researchers based on issues and challenges as the main sources of reference by adopting the document analysis method. Therefore, this study used a qualitative method with a protocol of observation and analysis of several sources to get data and information. The outcome of this article suggests that the higher institutions have to consider all aspects in supporting the continuity of research and innovation to ensure no researchers are left behind. Researchers are majorly concerned on their research competency with none to minimal exposure to laboratory settings. All stakeholders’ wellbeing, including mental health should be prioritized, should this mode of delivery continue in these times of uncertainty. This paper clarifies that the methods and point solutions to the challenges faced by the researcher and innovators are considered as a new issue and supposed to be handled by all parties to enhance the top quality of research and innovation in Malaysia. Pages 596 to 605

Challenges of Remote Learning During COVID-19: The Case of a Rural University

Anthony Kambi Masha, Department of Management Studies, Walter Sisulu University, Queenstown Campus, South Africa, Correspondence: amasha@wsu.ac.za

The purpose of this article was to examine the challenges of remote learning during COVID-19 at Walter Sisulu University in South Africa. The article adopted a positivist paradigm that utilises a quantitative approach where a questionnaire survey was employed as the data collection tool. The Statistical Package for Social Science was used to analyse the data which was presented in form of graphs. The findings of the article revealed that regarding remote virtual learning many students could not adequately access the online learning tools due to either lack of data or computers. The findings reflected further the limited data provided by the university was a constraint towards successfully conducting online learning. The conclusions drawn for the article indicated a gap in which Walter Sisulu University should play a pivotal role in increasing the quantity of data provided to students as well as online gadgets that include laptops to enable students to embrace the virtual learning amid COVID-19 break. Recommendations are therefore provided to the government of South Africa to prioritise education in rural institutions as COVID-19 has exposed some weaknesses regarding virtual learning due to inadequate resources in institutions of higher learning. Pages 606 to 627

Teacher Resilience and Learners’ Classroom Disciplinary Problems in a South African Setting

Letlhoyo Segalo, Department of Educational & Professional Studies, P.O. Box 1881, Central University of Technology, Free State, Corresponding author: lsegalo@cut.ac.za

This paper explores the nature of learners’ classroom behavioural challenges from a resilient teachers’ perspective. Plethora of literature points on the negative responses of teachers towards learners’ classroom behavioural challenges, such as the use of corporal punishment, the use of sarcastic language to mention but a few. Least is reported on teachers who strive above these learners’ classroom behavioural challenges manifestations. Thus, in this paper, a different approach is employed to explore the nature of teachers who are resilient in the face of the challenges that learners present in the classrooms. A pathogenic or a causal approach which looks at the cause of the misbehaviour of the learners is discarded. In order to achieve this endeavour a qualitative phenomenological research approach was employed. Nine secondary schools teachers were purposively sampled for the study, 5 females and 4 males; age range was 32, with mean teaching experience of 17 years. An in-depth interview strategy using open-ended questions was used to illicit responses from the participants on their resilience strengths. Data collected was decoded and thematically analysed. The findings of the study reveal that resilient teachers concentrate on the well-being of the learners rather than the behaviour problems. Pages 628 to 639

The Influence of Talent Management on Employee Retention - An Empirical Study of the Arab Republic of Egypt’s Public and Private Commercial Banks

Yassin Sherif Nazmy El Sayed1*, Mary Rafik Boshra Wadie2; Mennatallah Ossama El Koussy3 1,2 Assistant Professor of Finance Department, Modern university for technology and information, Egypt. 3 Assistant Professor of Management Department, Modern university for technology and information, Egypt. Email: 1yassinnazmy@gmail.com, 1yassinnazmy2@gmail.com 2Maryrafik@yahoo.com, 3Signorina_nouna@hotmail.com

This study aims to explore the impact of Talent Management (Talent Planning, Recruitment, Compensation and Rewards, Performance Management, Employee Empowerment, Employee Engagement and Organizational Culture) on the Arab Republic of Egypt’s (hereinafter referred to as Egypt) Public and Private Commercial Banks’ retention of employees.  The researcher tested the degree of the impact by using Multiple Regression Analysis. This study’s results show that Talent Management has a positive and significant effect on Egypt’s Public and Private Commercial Banks’ retention of employees. Pages 640 to 658

The Role of Leadership Practices in Supporting Organisational Citizenship Behaviours (An Empirical Study)

Mohamed A. Amina, Mohamed M. Elmetwalyb, Wael Hassan El-Garaihyc, Wael Mohammed Salehd, Mahmoud M. H. Alayise, a,d,eAssistant Professor, Business Administration Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. bAssistant Professor, Marketing Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. cAssociate professor of management, Business Administration Department, College of Applied Studies and Community Service, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia. Email: amoaaahmed@iau.edu.sa, bmhmetwally@iau.edu.sa, cwhgaraihy@iau.edu.sa, dwmSaleh@iau.edu.sa, emmhali@iau.edu.sa

The study aimed to examine the role of leadership practices in supporting organizational citizenship behaviors, by applying them to faculty members in Egyptian universities. Multiple regression analysis, Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test, and correlation coefficient were used to analyze the study’s hypotheses. A survey list was also prepared and directed to faculty members in Egyptian universities. To analyze the study data, the SPSS statistical program was relied upon, and the study sample amounted to 383 individuals, and the number of correct lists was 271. The results of the study indicated a positive and significant impact of the five leadership practices (shared vision, desire for change, support and motivation, spreading a culture of creativity, and finally skills Communication and positive relationships with others) and organizational citizenship behaviors. Pages 659 to 680

Relationship between Experiential Learning and Developing the Science Competencies for Primary Students

Doan Thi Ngana, Bui Van Hongb, aPhd student of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, bInstitute of Technical Education of Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education, aThu Duc Education Enrichment School, Email: angandt.ncs@hcmute.edu.vn, bhongbv@hcmute.edu.vn

Organizing experiential activities and developing students’ competencies are the two main concerns in the renovation of the General Education Curriculum at the primary level. Particularly, experiential activities are the learning theory that lies at the heart of education with an orientation toward the development of students’ competencies. They provide detailed guidelines to develop students’ foundational experience (specific experience) toward the learning outcomes of the subject and the education level, thus, developing competencies. At the center of Kolb’s experiential learning theory is his model of experiential learning describing the four-stage process in which a learner learns from their experiences. Applying Kolb’s experiential learning model to teach the science subject in primary schools helps develop students’ competencies. Using a pedagogical experimental approach, the article presents the results of administering a pedagogical treatment to clarify the relationship between applying a science teaching model adapted from Kolb’s experiential learning model with the development of students’ competencies in primary schools in Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. The findings contribute to promoting the renovation of the current primary education in Vietnam. Pages 681 to 702

Learning Application Based on Games for Electrical Installation Course (E-Game Wiring)

Hashim, M. H. M1., Nurul Aisyah Farhana, A. L2., Mazliana, M. 3, 1.2Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, 3Faculty of Technology Management and Business, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Email: 1mhisyam@uthm.edu.my, 2nurul.nafal@gmail.com, 3mazlianamuridan@gmail.com

The mastery of the practical work is very important among students in the technical field as the lack of mastery can lead to the lack of skilled manpower in Malaysia and teaching materials to provide an impact on learning and facilitating to enable each learning to be clearly received. Therefore, the study is intended to design and develop a simulation of the specific circuit connection game for assembly and electrical wiring courses as one of the learning materials that assists in the learning process. The learning simulation game developed is a concept of constructivism theory that can help individuals to learn independently and to provide new experiences along with the rapid development of this technology. A preliminary survey study was conducted among students who took assembly and electrical wiring courses to identify problems faced during the teaching and learning and type of practical sessions. As a result of the initial review, finding positive feedback was received regarding the application of simulation of the game in learning. Further, the results of alpha testing from the development of this app, developers found close to all elements are working as expected. However, this E-game application wiring still needs to be improved and improvements and suggestions for the future to improve the difficulty and content in the game. Pages 703 to 725

Challenges Implementing the Fourth Industrial Revolution: South African Rural Health System

Mangwanya Maonei Gladysa, Uwizeyimana Dominique Emmanuelb, aPost-Doctoral Research Fellow, School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, bAssociate Professor, School of Public Management, Governance and Public Policy, College of Business and Economics, University of Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: agmangwanya@gmail.com, bdominiqueu@uj.ac.za

The purpose of this article is to explore the challenges facing the rural health sector in South Africa and how the introduction of Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR) technologies can assist in resolving some of these problems. While the 4IR has many potential technologies to improve the public health sector in South Africa, it also reveals many challenges facing the country and the governmental organisations responsible for delivering public services and the implementation of government programmes. South Africa’s public health service delivery and its health outcomes have been poor, if not critical, for many years. With the country’s under-resourced and overburdened healthcare systems, there is a chance to take advantage of the 4IR technologies to try and improve health service delivery in rural areas of South Africa. The aim of this article was to assess the challenges faced by the South African government in its attempt to use 4IR technologies to improve rural health systems. The article used a qualitative research approach based on the document review method using the desktop method. Despite the perceived benefits of the new technologies to improve healthcare services in South Africa, there is still a lack of human and material resources to execute the technological advancements in rural areas. The study showed that some of the biggest challenges faced by the South African government include lack of infrastructure, underfunding, and lack of skills for new technologies. Recommendations were made to create awareness and equip the health workforce with skills for new technologies. Pages 726 to 743

The Challenges Faced by Teachers when Incorporating Chess into the Curriculum in King Cetshwayo District Primary Schools

NtandokaMenzi P. Dlamini a,  Mncedisi Christian Maphalalab, aUniversity of  Zululand, Faculty of Education, Department of Curriculum and Instructional Studies, bNorth West University, School of Professional Studies in Education Studies, https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1078-1985, Email: aDlaminiN@unizulu.ac.za , bt25787810@nwu.ac.za

As the standard of education in South Africa deteriorates, one solution considered that has brought success in various countries is chess. Numerous studies have been conducted across the globe proving that chess is the perfect intervention. Studies conducted in America, Italy, Denmark, India and other parts of the world have focused on the game of chess and its incorporation into the curriculum but rarely on the experiences of the teachers who are the key role players in incorporating this game in their teaching. A focus on the teachers helps ensure that the intervention is effective and that assistance is available to the teachers whenever they need it. This article explores the challenges that teachers encounter when incorporating chess in their classrooms. Data in this qualitative study were collected in the province of KwaZulu-Natal by observing and interviewing 14 teachers from various schools in which the Tsogo Sun Moves for Life programme has been incorporated. The findings of this study show that teachers are faced with many challenges which hinder the successful integration of chess in their teaching. Pages 744 to 759

Financial Credit for SMEs and Export in Jordan

Eyad Moufaq Alkousini, Department of Management Sciences, Al-Rashid International Private University, Damascus, Syria, Email: alkousinieyad@gmail.com                                                           

This study aims to determine the impact of small and medium-sized finance on Jordan’s export. For this purpose, time series analysis (Autoregressive Distributed Lag model) is used. Due to the limited data available, quarterly data from small and medium-sized finance was used during this period (2016-2020). Results are shown that some variables are stationary at the level and some stationary at the first difference.  The results also show that there is a long-term relationship between export and explanatory variables. The estimate showed that there is a significant positive effect of small and medium finance, on export, and the impact of financing given to medium-sized companies on exports is greater than financing given to small companies. The study finished with several recommendations, including the need to provide support to small projects to help them overcome the challenges they face, as well as removing obstacles to small and medium finance. Facilitating their access to sufficient and sustainable sources of funding, On the other hand, it is necessary for the companies to interact with each other, SMEs will make changes to improve their income has become larger and more stable, making it possible for these companies to add new export. Pages 760 to 774

Opportunities of Using Space Technology to Enhance Border Security in South Africa

Moses Thabo Katjisa Nkhomaa, Albert Tchey Agbenyegahb, aDepartment of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Durban University of Technology, South Africa. bDurban University of Technology, Riverside Campus, Pietermaritzburg, South Africa, Faculty of Management Sciences, Department of Applied Management. Email: amnkhoma@hotmail.co.za, balberta@dut.ac.za


The failure of the South African border security authorities to provide effective border security continues to be a national security concern. The inability to provide effective border security is due to factors such as ineffective methods of controlling and monitoring the borders. The aim of this study was to examine the practicability of employing space technology to address identified border security constraints. The study focused on border security authorities and the space technology sector in South Africa. To achieve this objective, a qualitative research methodology was used to ascertain the issues and constraints of border security in South Africa as well as the possibilities of utilising space technology to address border security constraints in South Africa. Findings indicate that there is a need to utilise space technology in South Africa to enhance the level of border security. Pages 775 to 798

Enhancing Border Security through Public-Private Partnerships in South Africa

Moses Thabo Katjisa Nkhomaa, Albert Tchey Agbenyegahb, aDepartment of Business Administration, Faculty of Management Sciences, Durban University of Technology, South Africa. bDurban University of Technology, Riverside Campus, Pietermaritzburg South Africa, Faculty of Management Sciences, Department of Applied Management. Email: amnkhoma@hotmail.co.za, balberta@dut.ac.za

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151054

This study sought to explore the opportunities in forming effective partnerships between the public sector and the private space technology sector to address border security challenges in South Africa using space technology. The study focused on border security authorities and the space technology sector in South Africa. To achieve the above objective, a qualitative research methodology was used to ascertain the possibilities and opportunities of adopting Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs) to enhance border security in South Africa through the adoption of space technology. Findings indicate that there is a need for effective PPPs for the purpose of enhancing border security through the application of space technology in South Africa. The findings further highlighted the massive benefits of partnership but also highlighted the possible challenges of engaging in PPPs. This study revealed that it is reasonably expected for the South African border security authorities to collaborate with the private space technology sector for the purpose of developing and providing effective space technology for border security. Pages 799 to 817

Barriers to Implementing Information Communication Technology (ICT) in Managing Small to Medium Tourism Enterprises (SMTEs): the Case of Hogsback, Eastern Cape, South Africa

Dr Siyabonga Mxunyelwa, PhD Walter Sisulu University, Faculty of Business Science, Department of Tourism, Hospitality and Sport Management,  Email: smxunyelwa@wsu.ac.za

Information Communication Technology is recognised worldwide for its contribution towards SMTEs development and the economy. However, the level of ICT implementation as a management tool, its contribution and the extent of benefits on SMTEs is a debateable phenomenon. The purpose of this study was to investigate the barriers to the implementation of ICT within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises in Hogsback. Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were applied in this study. Questionnaire interviews were conducted with owner/managers in Hogsback. The stratified sampling method was utilised to collect data. The study indicates that (46.2%) of the business respondents were operating the accommodation establishments. The findings of the study underscores that (25.6%) of the business owners identified the barriers of ICT appears to be high costs. Further (23.1%) stated that accessing technology was also an impediment. Moreover, the study elucidates that (94.9%) of the SMTE concur that implementation ICT as a management tool helps to meet objectives of the business for the daily operations of the business. It is therefore recommended that ICT be implemented as a management tool for small and medium tourism enterprises. Furthermore, the study recommends that the managers/owners should invest in technology to ensure the success of the SMTEs in all aspects. Furthermore, the study serves as the basis for future studies in the area of ICT within the SMTE sector. Pages 818 to 834

The Hisbah Principle in Islam

Prof Rashid Bhikha, Ibn Sina Institute of Tibb, Johannesburg, South Africa, Email: rashidb@tibb.co.za

The Hisbah principle is a historical conceptual framework that encapsulates the command of Allah (SWT) as instructed in the Qur’an and Sunnah. In a world where corruption, oppression and immorality are constantly on the rise, we are faced with the question of what constitutes our humanity? To what extent have we contributed to the societal detriment that we are currently facing? The purpose of this paper is to encourage introspection, identifying human purpose and in retrospect, highlighting the Hisbah principle of ethical conduct. Through understanding and implementation of the Hisbah principle we can create discipline in every aspect that governs the Muslim Ummah for the benefit of humanity at large. This paper serves as a reminder of our origin and purpose, which is based on religious teachings that support good character while simultaneously forbidding that which is evil. Contrary to this, the current ideologies, as inculcated by Western norms, promotes secularism, greed, selfish behaviour, materialism, and immorality, which has infiltrated all aspects of our society and is the driving force behind the many forms of corruption seen in politics, education, healthcare, and social justice around the world. It seems we have forgotten the essence of life on earth and the duties we collectively share. Therefore, in order to achieve the betterment of our purpose in this life and in the Hereafter, it is imperative to implement the practice of the Hisbah principle, as stated in the Qur’an and Sunnah. Pages 835 to 842

Factors that Influence Guest Satisfaction with the Hospitality Establishments: Evidence from Hospitality Industry in Eastern Cape, South Africa

Mr Z Mtshokotshea*, Dr. S Mxunyelwab, aDepartment of Tourism, Hospitality & Sport Management, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa, bDepartment of Tourism, Hospitality & Sport Management, Walter Sisulu University, South Africa. Email: a*zmtshokotshe@wsu.ac.za, bsmxunyelwa@wsu.ac.za

The management of guests’ satisfaction is imperative for the sustainability of hospitality establishments. The guests’ satisfaction is a lifeblood of a thriving hospitality establishment such as the hotel, guest house, lodge and Bed and Breakfast to mention but a few. The purpose of this paper was to examine the influence of the five dimensional factors of service quality on guest expectations and experiences in hotels in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Furthermore, the paper sought to analyse the factors among the five dimensions that have a main role in driving overall guest expectations and experiences. A purposive sampling method was employed in the data collection process.  Primary data was collected through interviews with hotel managers in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) among factor was undertaken in order to analyse the five factors. The findings elucidate that tangibles, responsiveness and assurance play a significant role in driving guest expectations and experiences in the South African hotel industry. The paper further underscores that reliability and empathy are an integral part in providing memorable experience for the guests in hotels. Furthermore, service quality is one of the key aspects to guest expectations and experiences. Conversely, the tangible variable is deemed to be the most important factor driving guest expectations and experiences in the context of the South African hotel industry. It is evident from the findings of the paper improve guest expectations and experiences hoteliers should emphasise the following attributes: ‘reliability’, ‘empathy’ and ‘assurance. The findings of this paper makes a meaningful contribution to a better understanding of the main factors that influence guest expectations and experiences. The results of this paper have implications from a managerial point of view in the highly competitive South African hotel industry. Pages 843 to 857

Impact of E-commerce on Business Performance on Tourism Industry in Jordan

Rukana Alshaweesh1, Dr. Srinivas Bandi2, 1Research Scholar ISBR Research Centre Bangalore, 2Professor, Research Guide, ISBR Research Centre- Bangalore, 2Bandi.srinivas1980@gmail.com

The aim of` this study is to investigate the impact of electronic commerce on business performance. Researcher depending on correlational design and rely on the descriptive analytical method. describe the phenomenon of E-Commerce and Business Performance in Jordanian tourism industry and analyze the data that he obtains in different ways, to identify the impact of E-Commerce with its at Business Performance in Jordanian tourism industry. The study reached a set of results, the most important of which are: Jordanian tourism companies interested in e-commerce in its various dimensions, and focus their attention on the exchange of information, believing in its importance in the success and continuity of business organizations. And Jordanian tourism companies are among the leading companies that rely on the use of modern marketing strategies, modern management and interest in e-commerce and financial technology in their quest for development and keeping pace with modern developments in the business environment. Pages 843 to 878

Civil Protection for Underage Refugees in Jordanian Law

Dr. "Mohammad Ashraf" Khalid Ali Al-Qheiwi, Faculty of Law / Isra University / Jordan, Email: aDr.mohqheiwi@yahoo.com

The present research is concerned with civil protection for underage refugees in Jordanian law, given that the refugee issue has recently become the concern of a number of countries, especially in Jordan. The law has addressed many problems regarding protection for all age groups, whether through local laws, custom, or international organizations. The research presented the civil rights and freedoms surrounding the refugee child, bearing in mind that the underage child goes through different stages of life and has special treatment under human rights conventions. In addition, Jordanian law pledged under the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees in 1951, and this is considered the protection of refugees, especially children, on Jordanian territory. And the agreement was binding to preserve the refugee child and to clarify his rights and duties as he becomes on the land of the homeland, and through the study it becomes clear to us that the refugee of all ages is held accountable within the framework of local laws. The Convention aimed to preserve the refugee child and clarify his rights and duties. Through the present study, it becomes clear that refugees of all ages are held accountable within the framework of local laws. Pages 879 to 893

Motivating Fundamentals Influencing Students’ Career Choice in Accounting 

Matsolo Claurina Mokhampanyane, Central University of Technology, Free State. Email: mmokhamp@cut.ac.za

The Accounting objective is to develop graduates who have considerable content knowledge, with strong communication skills and analytical competent professionals, demanded by the corporate world. The purpose of this study is to explore motivating essentials influencing students to pursue an Accounting qualification at the Faculty of Management Sciences at a University of Technology in South Africa. Accounting has been branded as the process of data collection, classification, summarisation, interpretation, and communication of relevant financial transactions of an entity to interested parties. This procedure enables the individuals and organisations to better understand their financial health. Accountants are generally involved in a range of activities such as auditing, taxation, and consultancy services. An interpretive qualitative research method was used. Participants in this study were 20 first year Accounting students and were purposively recruited for the study.  An open-ended questionnaire was used. A thematic analysis was assumed to sort, interpret, and analyse the collected data as it includes the replication of categorised objectives. The findings of this study indicated that the need for Accounting professionals in the labour market and career opportunities motivate students to enrol for an Accounting qualification. The study also indicated that working with numbers is inspiring to some students and it encourages them to have a passion for Accounting. The study further indicated that the analytical nature of Accounting activates their concentration, is attractive, interesting, and challenges students who are studying Accounting. The finding revealed that students are motivated by many essentials to pursue an Accounting qualification. Pages 894 to 906

Soft Dimension of TQM: A Validation by Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA)

Md. Shuhel Miaha, Md. Mamun Miab*, aUniversity Kuala Lumpur, 50250 Kuala Lumpur, bDaffodil International University, 1207 Dhaka, Email: b*md.shuhel@s.unikl.edu.my

The purpose of the research is to test the theory with confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) executed the validation of the first-order and second-order factor analysis to demonstrate the perspective of soft-TQM dimensions. The technique is used by positivism analysis to establish the theory traits of the soft-TQM that are identified empirically and confirmed by the goodness of fit parameters of incremental fit and absolute fit parameter through CFA analysis. The findings of all dimensions have demonstrated that all parameters are achieved good fit of the soft-TQM construct as a part with two extents of first-order and second-order factor analysis. Yet, the analysis showed in the goodness of fit enabled to perform the two indications of the measured variables are valid. The outputs of the research are also recommended potential implications for the soft-TQM that are supported by three dimensions of leadership, employee relations, and customer relations as a central part of the soft strategy. Finally, the results demonstrated a further analysis scope to predict the construct of the soft-TQM to measure the formative validation with the same dimensions that are fitted as well. Pages 907 to 917

Web 3.0 and Cultural Consumption of Students in Digital Arts, in the Howard-Sheth Behavior Model

José Armando Pérez Crespo¹*, Tirtha Prasad Mukhopadhyay2, 1,2University of Guanajuato, México, *Corresponding Author, 1Orcid https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8122-5097, Email: 1armando.perez@ugto.mx, 2tirtha@ugto.mx  

In this research it was studied patterns of cultural consumption in remote settings, specifically in the face of the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. A selection of university students in digital arts, who for purposes of external training or leisure made use of Web 3.0, were chosen for the survey.  We explored aspects of their conviction, conformity and satisfaction with use of said media. Evaluation of the participants’ experiences as consumers helps explain how they are subsequently predisposed, directly or indirectly, by Web 3.0 usage in their sociocultural contexts. The survey was based on collection of data from questionnaire on consumer behaviors and preferences proposed by John Howard and Jagdish Sheth. The survey was conducted on three counts based on (a) immediately significant, symbolic and social questions (b) perceptual processes and learning and finally (c) acquisition of levels of satisfaction. The model demonstrates variables and predominant reactions to quality of learning, influence of school environment, open search modalities of information gathering and appropriation of specifications and characteristics of a cultural inventory that included films, 2D and 3D animation products and photography among others. Pages 918 to 929

Novice Teachers’ Experiences of Challenges of their Professional Development

Moshe Moses Makoa1, Letlhoyo Jacob Segalo2, 1Central University of Technology, Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, 2Central University of Technology, Free State, Welkom, South Africa, 1makoam@cut.ac.za, 2lsegalo@cut.ac.za

This research study explored novice teachers’ experiences of their professional. Novice teachers are described as newly qualified teachers with less than five years of teaching experience. It is important that novice teachers can adjust quickly to the teaching environment, like situational contexts, such as a different culture, environment, and learner backgrounds. A whole teacher professional development theory or the gestalt was used to argue for a holistic novice teachers’ professional development. How, novice teachers adapt to the professional ethos could be a precursor of their professional development. An interpretive qualitative research approach was used in this study. A purposive sample of seven (34) novice teachers was used. The sampled novice teachers were based in five different schools in one district of education in Gauteng, South Africa. Nineteen (19) female and sixteen (16) male teachers with age mean of and average teaching experience of three years. A semi-structured interview was used to collect data which was thematically analysed. The findings of the study revealed that novice teachers who had attended different teacher professional development programmes organized at school level experiences some major challenges such as continuity of the professional programme, the high cost of training, among others which inhabit the whole teacher professional development. Pages 930 to 942

Exploring the Theoretical Link Between Career Choice Anxiety, Psychological Well-Being and Career Self-Efficacy: A Conceptual Framework

Petronella Jonck, PhD Psychology, GIFT research entity, Faculty of Economics and Management Sciences, North-West University, Email: petronellajonck@hotmail.com

The influence of COVID-19 has yet to be fully realised, however it is hypothesised that the global pandemic increased the anxiety response in adolescents. Another unintended consequence is the impact thereof on the world of work. Uncertainty relating to the job market, unemployment, career opportunities and expectations could further exacerbate perceived anxiety bringing about career choice anxiety. This article explores the theoretical link between career choice anxiety, psychological well-being and career self-efficacy in an effort to propose a conceptual framework that could be implemented as theoretical underpinning for the development of a psychometric stable measuring instrument. Psychological well-being has emerged as a public health anomaly especially for adolescents as some mental health concerns have an early onset around the age of 14. While, anxiety has been identified as prevalent in the age group. Furthermore, career self-efficacy could hypothetically moderate the link between career choice anxiety and psychological well-being. Assessment and possible interventions are pivotal in the context of COVID-19 as the intensity of fear and anxiety have increased in an already at risk age group with adverse consequences. Ascribed to the lacuna of empirical evidence relating to career choice anxiety and psychological well-being the proposed conceptual framework will not only contribute to the corpus of knowledge but could also be implemented to inform career guidance practice in future. Above and beyond the knowledge contribution the proposed conceptual framework will also have a societal impact addressing goal three of the sustainable development goals notably good health and well-being. Pages 943 to 956

The Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning Asissted Quizizz Media to Improve Critical Thinking Skills

Fia Ayuning Pertiwia, Siswandarib, Heri Sawijic, Sebelas Maret University, Email: fia.ayuningpertiwi@gmail.coma, siswandari@staff.uns.ac.idb, sawiji_heri@yahoo.comc

Changes that are fast-paced and unlimited, force every individual to improve their competence in order to adapt and be able to face global competition. One of the competencies needed is the ability to think critically, so that schools have an important role in realizing the quality of education to produce graduates who meet demand. However, the results of observations show that students' critical thinking skills are still relatively low. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the Problem Based Learning model asissted Quizizz Media to improve students' critical thinking skills. The research method is a quasi-experimental research, with data collection techniques using questionnaires and multiple choice test. The research sample is class XI IPS 3 and XI IPS 4 of SMA N 7 Surakarta. The results of hypothesis testing by using the t-test showed a sig value of 0.023 and an N-gain value for the experimental class of 0.62. The PBL model asissted Quizizz media can effectively improve students' critical thinking skills, while the N-Gain value of 0.62 indicates an increase in students' critical thinking in the medium category. Pages 957 to 969

Examining the Influence of Leadership Style on Project Performance in Saudi Context

Tarig Eltayeba, Shabir Ahmadb, a,bDepartment of Management, College of Business Administration, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, aORCID: 0000-0002-7125-2171, bORCID: 0000-0002-0523-6536, Email: atknourelhadi@iau.edu.sa, Email: bsabahader@iau.edu.sa

Successful project execution plays a crucial role in accomplishing the organizational strategic objectives. Being the figurehead and the leader, a project manager’s role is particularly important in project success. Research has shown that various leadership styles have a different impact on project success. This study endeavors to investigate the impact of transformational and transactional leadership styles on project performance in the context of Saudi Arabia, which initiated several projects to achieve its vision 2030.  Employing a purposive sampling, data were collected from the project managers through a questionnaire survey. The proposed hypotheses were tested through PLS-SEM using SmartPLS 3. The analysis revealed that in contrast to the transactional leadership style, the transformational leadership style is more effective Saudi Arabia and significantly enhances the project performance. The study contributes to the literature by providing a piece of empirical evidence from the under-researched region. In addition, it provides vital practical implications for project managers and organizations of Saudi Arabia. Pages 970 to 982

The Need for Training and Development in Provincial Government Departments: A Case of a Government Communication & Information System

Bongeka Nkwanyanaa, Sybert Muterekob, University of KwaZulu-Natal, College of Law and Management Studies, ankwanyanabongeka@gmail.com, b Sybert@ukzn.ac.za  

Many training and development programmes in the public sector are not informed by the training needs of the employees. This paper explores how training needs analysis is conducted in South Africa drawing on a case study of the Department of Government Communication and Information Systems (GCIS). Data for this study were collected through a mixed method approach. The quantitative part used a questionnaire survey with purposively selected participants (N=108) from the GCIS and 13 in-depth interviews. The findings revealed that despite the existence of Personal Development Plans (PDPs) in the GCIS, there is an absence of diversity and particularity in the training programmes provided in the GCIS.  Furthermore, the findings revealed that the advent of the fourth industrial revolution, which requires GCIS employees, particularly the communicators, to use various constantly evolving items of technological equipment means that individual training needs must be considered. These findings have profound implications for human resource development practitioners in the public sector as they provide important insights into the reason for the infectiveness of training and development. Pages 983 to 999

Fitbit and HeartMath Study of Physical Activity and Meditation during COVID-19

Stephen D. Edwardsa and David J. Edwardsb, Psychology Department, University of Zululand, Private Bag X1001, KwaDlangezwa 3886, South Africa; Email: bedwards.davidjohn@gmail.com, edwardsd@unizulu.ac.za

The global COVID-19 lockdowns require adjustment and coping.  This illustrative, South African case study investigated the influence the COVID-19 lockdown context would have on physical activity and meditation.  As these were lifestyle patterns the null hypothesis was of no change. Methodology consisted of quantitative and qualitative phases.  The quantitative phase was an empirical, case study review of data from a research participant’s Fitbit and HeartMath electronic devices, as from 9 November 2019 to 31 July 2021.  This consisted of coherence and achievement data from HeartMath Inner Balance application (app), as well as distance and activity data from the Fitbit app.  The qualitative phase consisted of selection and illustration of meditation sessions documented over lockdown.  The highly significant increases in physical activity and meditation coherence and achievement collectively indicated significant health promotion over the COVID-19 lockdown period.  Subtle energetic, experiential descriptions of meditation apprehensions resonated and supported these quantitative findings. COVID-19 lockdown has meant improved physical health activity, meditation, personal transformation, humility and reordering of priorities.  The meditation descriptions amplified information from the Fitbit and HeartMath electronic devices, together co-creating conscious, embodied, relationship science for discussion, instruction and further research. Pages 1000 to 1017

Work Integrated Learning as a Strategic Tool for Enhancing Professional Development of Tourism and Hospitality Students

Vikelwa Judith Nomnga, Walter Sisulu University, Email: vnomnga@wsu.ac.za

This article explores the effectiveness of Work Integrated Learning (WIL) as a strategy to enhance academic performance and practical work experience amongst hospitality students at Walter Sisulu University (WSU) in South Africa. The article is thrust in the interpretive paradigm where the community of practice theory was used to analyse the perception of hospitality students regarding WIL as an education strategy for improving academic performance. A qualitative approach that employs interview schedules was used to purposively identify 15 hospitality students at WSU. These participants were enrolled for a tourism and hospitality course; hence, their perceptions regarding WIL were fundamental in understanding its usefulness. The key findings of this article revealed that WIL has made crucial strides towards equipping hospitality students with practical experience that they balance with theoretical knowledge to enhance their academic performance. However, some participants revealed that the WIL programme exposed them to industry slavery as they are subjected to repeated job routines that are not adequately renumerated. Therefore, the researcher has realised the need for hospitality industry players to increase their supervision role to students on a WIL programme, as this would instil a positive attitude for this experiential learning programme. Pages 1018 to 1028

Rashed Al-Ghanoshi's Concept of Democracy

Dr. Abdalrahim S. H. Shobaki, Department of Political Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine

DOI: 10.53333/IJICC2013/151075

This study analyses the concept of democracy according to Rashed Al-Ghanoshi that it aims exploring the contributions of this intellectual theses about democracy in the contemporary Islamic intellectual interaction with reality. Furthermore, it adopted text analysis method that Al-Ghanoshi’s intellectual texts are subject to this study. The researcher concluded thatAl-Ghanoshi based his writings on hte technical dimension of the concept of democracy eliminating the philosophical dimension to assure the neutrality of his methods. Also, he confirms that Islam and its objectives do not prevent these methods and arrangements. On the contrary, Islam aims to get humanity to these good arrangements for ruling in order to fulfill the principle of Shora (consultation). Besides, Al-Ghanoshi based his intellectual project on a number of ideas about the principles and practices of democracy where are intellectually controversial in the contemporary Islamic thought such as multiparty system, elections, the concept of the majority, legislation and separation of powers. This is done to reach the conclusion that Islam does not contradict with these practices and principles as the Islamic thought rejecting this concept and its methods is the only hindrance for any democratic change in the Arab Islamic societies. Pages 1029 to 1048

Examination of the Effect of English Language on Limited English Proficiency Accounting Learners in South Africa

Motalenyane Alfred Modise1, Gawie Schlebusch2, Luzaan Schlebusch3, 1Assistant Dean: Research, Innovation and Engagement, Faculty of Humanities, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa, 2Head of Department: Postgraduate Studies Education, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa. 3Assistant Dean: Teaching and Learning, Faculty of Humanities, Central University of Technology, Free State, South Africa. Email: 1mamodise@cut.ac.za

South Africa has eleven official languages and learners are initially taught in their mother tongue (from Grades 1 to 3).  Most subsequent teaching occurs in English or Afrikaans which  creates a problem for most learners whose mother tongue is neither of the afore-mentioned. The aim of this study is to probe into the effects of English as the language of learning for Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Grade 10 Accounting learners in the Free State Province, South Africa. The literature addresses the conceptual framework of social constructivism and the influence of bilingualism and code-switching on LEP learners. Qualitative research was employed to gather data from participants in three education districts in the Free State province, namely Motheo, Lejweleputswa and Fezile Dabi. Thirty Grade 10 Accounting LEP learners were purposively sampled as they were able to provide their experiences and opinions regarding the language of learning in the classroom.  Open-ended questionnaires were employed to gather data. The key findings were that LEP learners have difficulty communicating in academic English, have poor English language application skills, lack of vocabulary and inadequate English reading, writing, speaking and listening skills. In addition, the use of mother tongue during teaching and learning seems common practice in these schools and affects the performance of LEP Accounting learners. Resourcing teachers and working together in assisting LEP Accounting learners can address this problem. Pages 1049 to 1063

The Abolition of the Exempted Jurisdictions of the Collegiate Churches in the Liberal Period

Alberto Corada Alonso, University of Cantabria, Email: 1alberto.corada@unican.es

The aim of this work is to raise awareness of a little-known facet of the history of the Spanish collegiate churches: the abolition, after the application of the 1851 concordat, of the exempt jurisdictions of these institutions. A process that was extremely complicated and which was developed in several phases that lasted for a good part of the nineteenth century. Only after the definitive disappearance of these jurisdictions could the power of the ordinaries within their dioceses be perfected, a wish that the Spanish Church had had since the application of the Council of Trent. Pages 1064 to 1079
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