Institutional Quality Indicators and Faculty Morale; Their Influence upon the Knowledge of Agricultural Graduates

Mutti A. Asaalia, aTawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, Philippines, bUniversity of the Philippines, Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, Email: aasaalimutti@gmail.com,

The study sought to assess the educational quality indicators of public Agricultural Schools, and to determine their degree of contribution to the knowledge level of farming graduates. It also aimed to compare the knowledge level in two categories of schools. A total of 247 faculty members and 129 farming graduates were randomly selected as respondents. Selected school officials were also included. The data were gathered by administering a 100-item knowledge test, questionnaire on faculty morale and review of secondary data. Data were analysed with frequency counts, percentage, mean scores, t-test, multiple and simple linear regression analyses, and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r). The findings revealed that the faculty morale of seven Agricultural Schools was perceived by the faculty respondents as “average”. Overall, 71.33% of the minimum requirements of school facilities were compiled by the State Universities and Colleges (SUCs), and only 69.52% by the Non-Chartered Schools. The graduation rates of SUCs were “very low” while the Non-Chartered institutions were only “low.” However, both schools produced “very high” retention rates and these have resulted to a “very low” percentage of dropout rates. On average, the cost per student and the number of teachers assigned to student in SUCs were higher compared to the Non-Chartered Schools. The percentages of “high achievers” and “low achievers” were equal. However, the knowledge level of the farming graduates from the SUCs was significantly higher than the respondents from Non-Chartered institutions. Based on the Pearson Product Moment Coefficient of Correlation, only school facilities, retention rates, teacher-student ratio, and the per-student expenditure were positively related to the knowledge level. Likewise, multiple regression analysis using the reduced model revealed that faculty morale, school facilities, graduation and dropout rates, and teacher-student ration explained the highest contribution in the variability of the knowledge level with an R² of 81.92%. However, the observed variations were not significant at 5% level. Similarly, the simple linear regression analysis revealed that all independent variables, if taken alone, were also found to have made no significant contribution. Although, the stepwise regression analysis further showed that teacher-student ratios and dropout rates, entered together, would make the contribution of the former significant. However, their combined contribution of R² equal to 72.30% was also found non-significant. Pages 1 to 10




A Conceptual Model of What Influences Consumers When Visiting Green Hotels in Malaysia

Ataul Karim Patwarya, Hamimi Omarb*, Shaharuddin Tahirc, a,b,cSchool of Tourism, Hospitality and Event Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, 06010 UUM, Sintok, Kedah, Malaysia, Email: araselataul@gmail.com,  b*hamimi@uum.edu.my,  cshah299@hotmail.com

Tourism and hospitality are contributing positively to grow the Malaysian economy. However, tourism is also damaging the natural environment and society. Tourism and hospitality cannot deny their responsibility for climate change and hence global warming. The green revolution has gained momentum, to try to change the current path of environmental deprivation throughout the world. In the hotel industry, the implementation of ‘green’ practices seems to be increasing. The market should meet this demand for green hospitality products, to maintain a smooth supply. This study attempts an overview of green consumption in the Malaysian hotel industry. It has also shown the hypothetical relationship of environmental knowledge, altruism, perceived environmental responsibility, green availability, and green price sensitivity, to consumer attitudes regarding visiting green hotels in Malaysia. The development of an extensive literature review in this paper, together with its suggestions and conceptualizations, will help researchers with further empirical investigations. Pages 11 to 25




Establishing the Measurement Variables of the Chinese Hotel Guest Experience in Malaysia

Han Chaoa*, Basri Rashidb, aSchool of Tourism Management, North Minzu University, China, bSchool of Tourism, Hospitality and Event Management, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: a*cookiehanchao@gmail.com

The growth of the world's tourism industry has developed the hotel industry, and the continuous growth of Chinese outbound tourists has brought opportunities to the Malaysian hotel industry. However, attracting more Chinese outbound tourists to hotels and retaining customers has become a problem for Malaysian hotels, as guests’ experience highly depends on their evaluation of their visit. The experience is reflected in their evaluation of numerous variables.  However, the literature indicates no single, agreed framework to measure hotel visit experience. Hence, this paper evaluates the scale that can measure hotel visit experience. It uses Chinese guests as respondents. To do so, a model consisting of perceived value, satisfaction and commitment on electronic word-of-mouth responses is proposed. Using the pilot research method, the empirical data came from Chinese hotel guests visiting Malaysia hotels, using a survey questionnaire. The study used quantitative approach and Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21, utilized for data analysis procedures. This paper has vital significance and purpose, as it fills gaps in the literature on hotel management research. Pages 26 to 42




Research on the Construction of ‘X’ Occupational Skill Certificates for Vocational Education in China

Hongbo Maa*, Mingchang Wub, Weite Liuc, a,b,cNational Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, Email: a*mahongbo@zjipc.edu.cn

Vocational education in China has issues, compared with developed countries. They include inadequate occupational standards, insufficient motivation for industries to participate in running schools, and uneven quality levels for running schools and personnel training. In 2019, the Chinese government promulgated the National Implementation Plan of Vocational Education Reform. It places vocational education on an equal footing with normal education, and highlights its important role in both educational reform and innovation, and economic and social development. Based on Basil Bernstein's pedagogy, in this paper we analyze the mechanism of ‘X’ occupational skill certificates. Major findings include: (1) In the knowledge production field, China updates its old occupational classifications, and formulates skills standards. (2) It does so through strictly selecting intense needs majors and vocational training, through evaluation organisation launch pilot programs, and through establishing 1,988 pilot colleges with communication and confirmation by provincial education administrative departments. (3) A hypothesised ‘Credit Bank’ is used in training, to achieve the conversion between academic education and short-term training. Pages 43 to 55




The Relationship between Vocational High School Students Studying in their Field of Specialization, and their Development after Graduation

Liaw Tsuey-Fena, aGraduate School of Technological and Vocational Education, National Yunlin University of Science & Technology in Taiwan, Email: aswer87@yahoo.com.tw

This study explores the career choices of second-year high school students in the vocational education system. Specifically it relates specialist fields of study, the “most desirable areas after graduation”, and “development after graduation”. This study draws the necessary information from the long-term follow-up database of secondary education in Taiwan, and analyses the card-side verification. The explanatory variables are “the areas most desirable after graduation” and “development after graduation”, both of which are variable categories. The results of statistical analysis show that second-year students of the vocational system are continuing to pursue further studies or direct employment after graduation. Most choose to study in a speciality, except for the “other fields” in this area. Specialities for students are selected for post-graduation. The influence of continuing career planning or direct employment career planning is low. Pages 56 to 66




Innovation in the Assessment of Technical Subjects in Malaysian Secondary Schools

Mohd Tafizam Mohd Taiba, Ramlee Mustaphab, Azlina Amat Yasinc, aSMK Dato’ Mohd Said, Nilai, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia, bDepartment of Engineering Technology, Faculty of Technical and Vocational Education, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Malaysia, cFaculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, Tanjung Malim, Malaysia, Email: amtafizam78@yahoo.com.my,  bdr.ramlee@fptv,  cupsi.edu.my

The technical subjects comprised of Fundamentals of Sustainability (AK), Engineering Drawing (LK) and Invention (RC) have been introduced as electives for Form 4 and Form 5 students in Malaysian Secondary School. Examination results for AK, LK and RC in the Malaysian Certificate of Education (SPM) Examination were less encouraging and show some declination of students’ performance. Data from the Ministry of Education also show a decline in student enrolment in AK, LK and RC, between 10 to 17 percent yearly. Hence, this study evaluated the implementation of AK, GKT and RC as to input, process and product. A CIPP model was used as a conceptual framework. The research design was programme evaluation. Stratified random sampling was used to select 335 respondents from national secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia, consisting of 159 administrators and 176 teachers. Questionnaires, interview protocols and observation checklists were used as instruments. Cronbach Alpha reliability index for the three sets of questionnaires were between 0.77 to 0.95. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data. The empirical data found that staff training aspects need to be improved, especially staff training organised by the Ministry and Department of Education, in terms of teacher knowledge and skills for all three subjects. Interview and observation data were also presented to support the quantitative findings. Implications and recommendations for teaching and learning as well as for future research are presented and discussed. Pages 67 to 84




How Project-Based Learning and Direct Teaching Models Affect Teamwork and Welding Skills Among Students

Nizwardi Jalinusa, Syahrilb*, Rahmat Azis Nabawic, Yaumal Arbid, a,b,c,dFakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Padang, Padang, Indonesia, Email: b*syahril@ft.unp.ac.id

In the twenty-first century, many employers prefer candidates whose soft skills exceed their hard skills. In this article, the researcher compares project-based learning models and direct teaching, for welding skills and teamwork skills among vocational high education students. Welding skills are seen as hard skills and teamwork skills are viewed as soft skills. The research method used was experimental research. The results show that with the implementation of a project-based learning model, learning activities students have higher teamwork than welding skills, while with the implementation of a direct teaching model, learning activities students have higher welding skills than teamwork skills. This study shows that the implementation of different learning models, and the different competence ratio of hard skills and soft skills owned by students in a  model of project-based learning, is very appropriate for twenty-first century learning that prioritises learning outcomes owned by students higher on soft skills. Pages 85 to 111




Validity and Reliability of Measurement Instruments Using the Rasch Model: Preschool Teacher Readiness for STEM Implementation in Malaysia

Norazizah Binti Abdul Rahmana, Noor Ashikin Binti Mohd Yusopb, Nil Farakh Binti Sulaimanc, Amalina Binti Suhaimid, Rosmidah Bt Hashime, Ajurun Begum Binti Ahamedf, Bushra Limuna Binti Ismailg, Aliyas Bin Saidh, a,b,c,d,e,f,g,hInstitut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Pendidikan Teknik, Kompleks Pendidikan Nilai,Negeri Sembilan, Email: anorazizahabdulrahman@gmail.com,  bashikinmohdyusop@gmail.com

Four disciplines namely Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics are being implemented in the teaching process at the preschool level. It grants children the opportunity to explore the learning process in a real, realistic and meaningful context. The purpose of this study is to identify the readiness of preschool teachers in Malaysia to execute STEM. The survey used a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. It was circulated to 2300 preschool teachers nationally through Google Forms. The validity and reliability of the g-STEM questionnaire were measured with the Rasch Measurement Model, using Winstep software version 3.68.2. Rasch analysis revealed that the individual reliability index was 0.96 and the item reliability was 1.00. From the polarity of the item, it was established that each contributed to the measurement of teacher readiness for STEM, as the PTMEA CORR value of each item was between 0.41 and 0.77, which exceeded 0.40. Item comparability tests indicated that none of the items in the questionnaire were to be eliminated, because the mean square value of the items ranged from 0.69 to 3.89, and the mean square value of the items was dispersed from 0.68 to 3.91. The items in the questionnaire were positioned in an escalation continuum for the measurement of preschool teacher readiness for STEM implementation. Hence, the findings substantiated the g-STEM questionnaire constructs. The Rasch Measurement Model has ascertained that the g-STEM questionnaire has a high level of validity and reliability for utilization in measuring teacher readiness. Pages 112 to 131




An Analysis of the Horizontal and Vertical Consistency of ICT Skill Standards in Selected Countries and Regions

Nur Atiqah Raduana, Seung-Il Nab*, Young-Heung Kimc, Chun-Sik Ohd, a,b,c,dDepartment of Agricultural and Vocational Education, Graduate School, Seoul National University, Email: b*silna@snu.ac.kr

ICT-related occupations change rapidly. This leads to inquiries about the relevance of occupational standards amongst ever-changing industrial needs and individual career needs. This study utilises the Consistency Analysis Approach to identify horizontal consistency, which is similarities and differences in the components of six skills standards, and vertical consistency which includes implementation or applications. The analysis of horizontal consistency shows that the skills dimension in ICT skill standards are based on either occupational categories and career profiles, or skills. Japan ITSS, in particular, has two frameworks operating in parallel. Analysis of the vertical consistency shows that frameworks which have high applicability focus on using generic skills, and thus make it easier to adapt to other countries’ occupational standards. South Korea and Germany exhibit a stronger linkage to training or industry, especially because South Korea ITSQF is linked to the National Competency Standards and hence the Korean Qualifications framework. This study suggests that continuous updates in the grouping of occupations in the ICT sectors is critical in this era, where ICT occupations are constantly being created and changed.Pages 132 to 146




Comparing the Effects of Flipped Classrooms and Traditional Lectures on Students' Critical Thinking Dispositions in Family Education Courses

Pao- Lin Hsieha, Wei- Te Liub, aDoctoral Student & Vocational High School Teacher, Department of Technological and Vocational Education, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C., bDepartment of Technological and Vocational Education, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C., Email: apauline@cyhvs.cy.edu.tw,  bliuwt@yuntech.edu.tw

One of the principal purposes of the family education course (FEC) in Taiwan is to promote students' critical thinking. Flipped Classroom is a modern active learning strategy which could guide students to understand and use concepts. The study developed and evaluated 8-week courses aimed at comparing the effects of the Flipped Classroom (FC) and traditional lecture (TL) on Taiwan students' critical thinking disposition in FEC. A quasi-experimental design, with an experimental group of 35 students and 32 students in the control group, was used to estimate the impacts of educational interventions. Pre- and post-tests were managed for both groups. Students in the experimental group participated in a FC course. These results showed that the FC group students who received the interventions significantly improved their critical thinking ability as assessed by their Critical Thinking Test (CTT), Critical Thinking Disposition (CTD) scores and the fact that the effects of instructional strategies on CTD was statistically significant. This study’s findings also indicated the positive effects of the FC on students’ critical thinking skills and dispositions. Analysis of the student focus group interviews also showed that the experimental group learned how to have the ability, methods and skills to think about the families’ problems using critical thinking from the course. Each student's expectation for their future family could also be more clearly presented. Pages 147 to 160




IR 4.0 Knowledge and Readiness of Lecturers at the Teachers’ Education Institute, Technical Education Campus, Malaysia

Romy bin Abd.Kadira, Aliyas bin Saidb, T. Shanmugam A/L Thangaveluc, Ruba’ie bin Hj Saidd, Halimatun Sa’adiah bt. Harithe, Mohd. Ali bin Sidekf, a,b,c,d,e,fInstitut Pendidikan Guru Kampus Pendidikan Teknik, Malaysia.

This research undertakes to identify the knowledge and readiness of lecturers from the Teachers’ Education Institute, Technical Education Campus (IPGKPT), Malaysia, to face the Industrial Revolution 4.0. The new technological waves from this revolution will bring changes and development to current technology, and the educational sector is bound to face a similar fate. In view of this, a research involving 63 lecturers from the IPGKPT was conducted. This descriptive research adopts a Likert scaled questionnaire, distributed through Google Forms. The findings from this research show that the knowledge and readiness of lecturers towards IR 4.0 is at a moderate level. The researchers, thus, suggest that the management of IPGKPT initiate programmes and activities related to IR 4.0, to enhance understanding of it. Pages 161 to 171




Determinants of Compulsive Buying Behaviour in Apparel Industry of Pakistan

Muhammad Razaa, Reema Frooghib, Atif Azizc, aAssistant Professor Emaan Institute of Management & Sciences, bAssistant Professor Khadim Ali Shah Bukhari Institute of Technology, cAssistant Professor Karachi Institute of Economic & Technology, Email: aSirraza81@gmail.com,  cAtif.aziz@pafkiet.edu.pk

The study has aimed to analyse the impact of the store environment, promotion, merchandising, visual communication, brand-user imagery congruence and personality congruence on compulsive buying behaviour of apparel consumers of Karachi, Pakistan. Total 153 samples were gathered from various areas of Karachi city of Pakistan using convenience sampling technique. The study has used PLS-SEM. The results revealed that brand-user imagery congruence has statistically significant at 5% and positive association with compulsive buying behaviour of apparel consumers in Pakistan. Similarly, merchandising also found positive and statistically significant at 95% CI. Likewise, personality congruence, promotion and visual communication also found positively and statistically significant at 5% significance level. The study recommended that it should be important to focus upon these factors. In this regards, apparel companies should pay adequate importance to develop strong brand management strategies and operational tactics. Brand image should be made strong enough that can help consumers to understand and intact that brand image with their personality and imagery strength. Pages 172 to 189




Impact of Entrepreneurial Marketing, Internal Marketing and Organisational Commitment on Customer Loyalty with the Mediating Effect of Customer Satisfaction in the FMCG Sector of Pakistan

Muhammad Razaa, Syeda Nazneen Waseemb, Atif Azizc, aAssistant Professor Emaan Institute of Management & Sciences, bLecturer Karachi University Business School, cAssistant Professor Karachi Institute of Economic & Technology, Email: aSirraza81@gmail.com,  cAtif.aziz@pafkiet.edu.pk

The objective of the study is to examine the impact of entrepreneurial marketing, internal marketing and organisational commitment on customer loyalty with the mediation of customer satisfaction in the FMCG market of Karachi, Pakistan. The study has gathered 167 responses from the target population using convenience sampling method and five-point Likert scale questionnaire as data collection instrument. Partial Least Square (PLS) method to SEM has been employed as data analysis technique using SmartPLS version 3.0. The results revealed that entrepreneurial marketing and internal marketing have statistically significant influence on customer satisfaction. Whereas, the impact of entrepreneurial marketing on customer loyalty with the mediation of customer satisfaction has also found statistically significant but internal marketing does not contributes to customer loyalty. However, organisational commitment does not contribute to customer satisfaction and customer loyalty either. The study consequently concluded that utilisation of external and internal resources for customer-orientation would provide beneficial outcomes to FMCG firms in Pakistan. The study also provides some practical implications and future research recommendations. Pages 190 to 208




The Role of Emotional Intelligence and Perceived Employability in Undergraduate Students

Atif Aziza, Muhammad Razab*, Talla M Aldeehanic, aAssistant Professor Karachi Institute of Economic & Technology, bAssistant Professor Emaan Institute of Management & Sciences, cCollege of business administration, Kuwait University, Email: b*Sirraza81@gmail.com

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between the four dimensions of emotional intelligence and perceived employability of undergraduate business students from Malaysian public universities.  Design: The close end questionnaire self-reporting measures of perceived employability were adapted to examine emotional intelligence and perceived employability. Findings: All dimensions of emotional intelligence were correlated with perceived employability. The results of the findings concluded that all dimensions of emotional intelligence had a direct impact on employability. Research Implication: The main strength of the study is to examine the influence of emotional intelligence dimensions on perceived employability. Previously, studies did not highlight multi-dimensional emotional intelligence with employability and the current findings will help intellectuals and policy makers to understand the employability issues and challenges facing Malaysian students.  Practical implications: The findings of the study are exploratory in nature. Study findings argued that better emotional intelligence helps individuals to overcome barriers to career related outcomes. The researcher can use it to improve employability by focusing on improving the student’s emotional intelligence. Researchers can use this research to launch an emotional intelligence program to improve the employability of students. Originality: This is the first study to demonstrate the relevant of evidence between the four dimensions of emotional intelligence and employability and results are consistent with each other. Pages 209 to 223




A Review and Conceptual Development of the Factors Influencing Consumer Intention towards E-Hailing Service in Malaysia

Vijayesvaran Arumugama, Mohd Roslan Ismailb, Moniezsa Joehareec, a,bInternational Medical University, cInternational University Malaya-Wales, Email: aVijayesvaran@imu.edu.my,  bMohdRoslan@imu.edu.my,  cmoniezsa@yahoo.com

On-demand ride hailing service is fast becoming Malaysian commuters preferred public transportation due to its unique features, which is ubiquitous. In spite of that, there are only a few academic studies conducted on consumer behaviour towards e-hailing service, especially in Malaysia. This conceptual paper is envisioned to establish the antecedents of consumer’s intention to use e-hailing from Malaysian perspective. A total of eleven studies related to behavioural intention of adopting on-demand ride service were reviewed and analysed. A frequency analysis was used to determine the independent variables and the moderator for the development of conceptual framework. The finding indicated that the following perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, compatibility, relative advantage and safety are significantly influencing user satisfaction towards the ride-hailing. In addition to that, subjective norms have a direct impact on the behavioural intention to use e-hailing service supporting the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). Pages 224 to 242




Why is Workplace Spirituality Important for Auditors?

Alfiyatul Qomariyaha, Nadia Anridhob, Dina Heriyatic, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: aalfiyatul.qomariyah@feb.unair.ac.id, bnadia.anridho@feb.unair.ac.id, cdinaheriyati@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to investigate the importance of workplace spirituality for auditors. This study tries to deeply explain the benefits of having workplace spirituality in organisations, especially public accounting firms, in order to reduce level of stress of auditors and increase their performance. The methodology used in this study was literature study, which has purpose to explain throughly workplace spirituality for auditors. The findings of this study show that workplace spirituality is needed by public accounting firms in order to gain sustainable performance. Spiritual leadership theory, spillover theory, and goal-setting theory are adopted in this study. By understanding the benefits of workplace spirituality in more detail, the findings of this study are expected to give more insights for academics and practitioners (auditors) about the importance of workplace spirituality so that they can apply it in organisations. Pages 243 to 251




Electronic Village Financial System Implementation in Banyuwangi: Ready or Not?

Anak Agung Gde Satia Utamaa, Triyan Rediyantob, Pending Puji Dwi Astutic, Yashinta Setyowatid, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: agde.agung@feb.unair.ac.id,  btriyan.rediyanto-2014@feb.unair.ac.id,  cpending.puji.dwi-2014@feb.unair.ac.id,  dyashinta.setyowati-2014@feb.unair.ac.id

This study aims to provide input to the local government of Banyuwangi District about the readiness for village financial system implementation in Banyuwangi district. The research approach used was descriptive qualitative with the case study method. Data was obtained through interviews with 15 informants consisting of DPMD, BPKAD, Inspectorate and 12 villages in Banyuwangi. The results of this study indicate that the understanding of village officials regarding the prevailing regulations tends to be weak and age and education factors influence the response to change for human resources (HR). The implementation of Electronic Village Budgeting (EVB) is able to meet the needs of village financial management based on Banyuwangi Regulation 15 of 2015. However, the application of village finance that is currently being used needs to be responsive to changes in policy direction, especially relating to village financial management. The difference in the application of village finance in the form of EVB and Sistem Keuangan Desa (SISKEUDES) lies in the platform and basic, namely web-based and online EVB whereas for SISKEUDES tends to be dashboards and offline. Based on the usefulness and ease of use in TAM theory, village officials see the need for applications that are able to answer the principles of accountability and transparency in managing village finances and are able to reduce risks and ease of use and responsiveness to changes in the direction of policies that apply. Pages 252 to 261




The Relationship Between Performance, Innovation, Earnings Management and Firm Value: An Indonesian Case

Catellya Wina Firdausyaa, Dian Agustiab*, Yani Permatasaric, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga,  Indonesia, Email: b*dian.agustia@feb.unair.ac.id

This study aims to identify the effect of firm innovation and earnings management on firm value with firm performance as an intervening variable. Using 652 manufacturing companies listed on Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2012-2016, hypotheses are tested by using path analysis. The results of this study indicate that (1) firm innovation affects firm performance, (2) earnings management does not significantly affect firm performance, (3) firm performance affects firm value, (4) firm innovation affects firm value, (5) earnings management affects firm value and, (6) firm performance is able to mediate the effect of firm innovation to firm value, but not able to mediate the effect of earnings management to firm value. Pages 262 to 282




An Integrated Model of the Adoption of Information Technology in Travel Service

Dien Mardhiyaha, Sri Hartinib, Damar Kristantoc, a,b,Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, cFaculty of Vocational Study, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, E-mail: E-mail: adienmardhiyah@feb.unair.ac.id,  bhartini_unair@yahoo.com,  cdamar-kristanto@vokasi.unair.ac.id

This study intends to combine three theories to understand the adoption consumer behaviour to use information technology in travel and tourism activities. That theory is TAM, TPB and DIT. The amount of research that integrates these three theories is relatively small. The Respondents were tourism website users that active using the website in the last 3 months. The samples to be taken in this study were 242 people. Result showed that social influences have positive effect on perceived usefulness and perceived ease of use. Personal innovativeness has positive effect on perceived ease of use and perceived usefulness. Furthermore, perceived usefulness has positive effect on trust and behavioural intention. Ease of use has a positive effect on perceived usefulness and trust has negative effect on perceived risk. Ease of use doesn't have effect on behavioural intention and perceived risk was also doesn't have effect on behavioural intention. Pages 283 to 299




Perceptions of the 7P Marketing Mix of Islamic Banks in Indonesia: What do Twitter Users Say About It?

Eko Fajar Cahyonoa*, Lina Nugraha Ranib, Salina Kassimc, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, cIIUM Institute of Islamic Banking and Finance, International Islamic University Malaysia, Malaysia, Email: a*ekofajarc@feb.unair.ac.id

Purpose: This study attempts to analyse the perceptions of social media users, particularly Twitter users, of social media marketing attempts by Indonesian Islamic banks. The perceptions of social media users are assessed based on the 7P marketing mix, namely: (i) product, (ii) promotion and education, (iii) price and other user outlays, (iv) process, (v) people, (vi) physical environment, and (vii) time. Design/methodology/approach: The research approach is descriptive quantitative, calculating the frequency of tweets based on their 7P marketing category and then interpreting the results. We collected more than 500,000 tweets by Twitter users in Indonesia, containing the phrase ‘Islamic bank’ between 2007 to 2018.The data was analysed using R software and managed using R-Python software. Findings: Results indicate that the ‘people’ factor gained the most responses from social media users, who were mainly customers of the Islamic banks, obtaining both positive and negative sentiments. The highest positive response given by customers were comments on staff’s attitude, good appearance and courteous customer service, while they disliked long queues and convoluted service. These findings provide important insight for effective marketing strategies of Islamic banks. Originality/Value: This research is the first research in the world revealing the perception of consumers of Islamic banks through Twitter. It is also the first to reveal perceptions of Islamic banks through Twitter, using the 7Ps Marketing Mix analysis tool. This research was conducted using big data analysis (i.e. it used more than 500,000 Twitter tweets) analyse Islamic bank consumers. Pages 300 to 319




The Mediating Role of Green Innovation on the Effect of Environment-Based Culture on Company Performance

Erina Sudaryatia, Dian Agustiab, Heru Tjarakac, Amalia Rizkid, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: aerina.sudaryati@feb.unair.ac.id,  bdian.agustia@feb.unair.ac.id,  cheru_tjaraka@feb.unair.ac.id,  damalia.rizki@feb.unair.ac.id,

Purpose : The main purpose of this study was to prove empirically the influence of environment-based culture on financial performance, with green innovation as a mediating variable for manufacturing companies listed in the vicinity of PIER and SIER East Java. Design/Methodology: The population of this study are manufacturing companies located in SIER and PIER. The survey was conducted by sending questionnaires to respondents in management levels in an organisation of a manufacturing company. The survey was carried out using two methods, both online, with paper surveys for some people. Findings: The results of this study indicate that environmental culture has a positive effect, and was shown to significantly affect financial performance, mediated by green process innovation, but green innovation products have not succeeded in mediating the influence of environmental commitment on financial performance. Originality/value: The originality of this study includes: the use of green accounting as a mediator – something which has not been conducted by other researchers, especially in Indonesia; measurement using ordinal scale primary data; and analysing manufacturing companies as the study’s population. Pages 320 to 334




Critical Assessment of Higher Education for Sustainable Development: Evidence in Indonesia

Febriana Wurjaningruma*, Tuwanku Aria Auliandrib, Nurullaily Kartikac, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email:  a*febriana.w@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this research was to investigate critical assessments, conducted by the academic community, on the implementation of the Higher Education for Sustainability Development (HESD) program in the Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga. This research method uses descriptive qualitative methodology, with the help of graphical analysis known as Graphical Assessment of Sustainability in Universities (GASU) – specifically the environmental, social and educational sections. Participants in this study were teaching staff, administrative staff and students. The study revealed that critical assessment of teaching and administrative staff is carried out through the Higher Education for Sustainable Development (HESD) program, implemented by the Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, with the highest perceived average being the dimensions of management systems, social responsibility and research and development. Secondly, the highest average perceived dimension is research and development. Pages 335 to 343




Governance in a Village Fund Program in East Java Indonesia

Muhammad Madyana, Gigih Prihantonob*, Ratri Amelia Aisyahc, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email:  b*gigih.pri@feb.unair.ac.id

The Village Fund program is a ‘Big Bang’ liberalisation policy, issued by the Indonesian government, aimed at helping develop rural areas and empowering local people that have been facing governance challenges. This research aims to analyse and evaluate local peoples’ involvement in village governance. We used a mix of research methods to investigate village governance frameworks. Field data was collected by semi-structured interviews of 200 villagers in the East Java district. Participants scored their responses on a qualitative data point scale (1-5). We found indications that poor governance still exists in the Village Fund management program. The main problem is a low level of participation, and lack of transparency, in handling the Village Fund instrument. Therefore, we suggest pragmatic approaches, such as providing incentives for rule compliance and strengthening monitoring mechanisms, to improve good governance practice within Village Fund programs. Pages 344 to 365




Performance-Based Budgeting and its Impact on Control Effectiveness: A Case Study of the State University of Indonesia

H. Habiburrochmana*, Amalia Rizkib, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a*habib_r_rahman@yahoo.com,habib@feb.unair.ac.id

This study aims to empirically analyse the impact of performance-based budgeting on control effectiveness, including the financial control effectiveness and the performance control effectiveness at Airlangga University. The study’s sample included the Dean and Vice Dean of financial affairs at Airlangga University. The method of data collection was purposive sampling through the distribution of questionnaires. The research variables were performance-based budgeting, financial control effectiveness, and performance control effectiveness. Hypothesis testing was carried out using regression analysis. The results of statistical tests show that performance-based budgeting had a positive and significant influence on financial control effectiveness, while performance-based budgeting had no significant effect on performance control effectiveness. These study findings indicate that the management of Airlangga University needs to prepare standard operating procedures to improve the implementation of performance-based budgeting. Pages 366 to 383




Using Hegel's Dialectic Pattern to Review the Adoption of the IFRS in Indonesia

Hamidaha, aFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: ahamidah@feb.unair.ac.id

Although there are currently more than 120 countries that have adopted the IFRS, an attempt be made to perform accounting standards around the world is still the subject of debate.  The emergence of this discourse engenders debate among academics about the advantages and disadvantages of such standards to be put in place in all countries. Scientific studies, literature and other research, has been conducted to respond to this discourse (see e.g. Abeysekera, 2005; Perry & Andreas, 2006; Soderstrom & Sun, 2010) and it turns out globalisation discourse around accounting standards continues to produce opinions and various research findings. This research aims to analyse the adoption of the IFRS through the dialectic of Hegel's thesis, antithesis and synthesis. This research uses a qualitative paradigm with a case study approach. Data is obtained through an in-depth interview technique, targeting informants including academics and practitioners of accounting.  The study found the agenda of global accounting standards is in line with the neo-liberal agenda, wanting freedom in competition. This agenda assumes that the free market will lead to efficiency. The efficiency aimed for, in laying out and withdrawing funds, has been facilitated within accounting through the application of one global standard, in favour of providing needed information. This research found that the urge to adopt the IFRS can be found in three slice accounting ecology, i.e. the actor-related slice, the political-related slice, and the business-related slice. There is a mutual connection between these three ecologies. The mutual connection between these three ecologies is scrutinised when its origin is on the same mission, namely to achieve the interconnected financial market. Pages 384 to 400




Foreign Ownership Reactions to the Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Public Companies on the Indonesia Stock Exchange

Hamidaha, aFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: ahamidah@feb.unair.ac.id

This study aims to determine the reaction of foreign ownership on the Indonesia Stock Exchange to the adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). This study will examine the reaction of foreign ownership on the Indonesia Stock Exchange during the periods 2007-2010 and 2012-2015. The variables used in this study are IFRS and foreign ownership. It finds that the obligation of IFRS does not affect the development of foreign investment in Indonesia, because accounting standards in Indonesia have been adjusted to IFRS since 2008 and investment decisions are not only influenced by standard accounting policies, but also by other factors, such as the economic and political conditions of a country. This study is motivated by the results of previous studies regarding the reaction of foreign ownership of IFRS adoption, which is still controversial. Some studies suggest that IFRS adoption increases information appeal and can attract foreign investment, while other research states that IFRS adoption will not necessarily increase the number of shares held by foreign investors. Pages 401 to 420




An Experimental Study of the Effect of Financial and Non-Financial Information on Intention to Invest in the Bearish and Bullish Market

I Made Narsaa, Niluh Putu Dian Rosalina Handayani Narsab*, Kadek Pranetha Prananjayac, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, cSekolah Tinggi Ilmu Ekonomi Perbanas, Indonesia, Email: b*niluh.narsa@feb.unair.ac.id

This study examines the effect on the intention to invest financial performance information (upward or downward net income trends) and non-financial performance information (strong or weak corporate social responsibility) in the bearish and bullish capital market conditions. By using a 2x2x2 factorial experiment, this study found the following: 1) participants have a stronger intention to invest when the company's financial performance shows an upward net income trend; 2) participants also have a stronger intention to invest when the company's CSR performance is strong; and 3) without paying attention to financial and non-financial information, a bullish capital market condition is a time when individuals have a strong intention to invest. It is also found that participants have a strong intention to invest in companies that have an upward net income trend when the capital market conditions are bullish. This study has the implication that bullish or bearish capital market conditions represent kinds of momentum that also explain the investors behaviour in utilising information that the company has provided. Pages 421 to 439




Halal Supply Chain Management Practice Model: A Case Study in Evidence of Halal Supply Chain in Indonesia

Indrianawati Usmana, aFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: aindrianawati-u@feb.unair.ac.id

The purpose of this study is to reveal halal supply chain practices through the exploration of constraints that occur in the field in halal supply chain management practices. It is based on the perspective of business people involved in the halal food supply chain management process. Research Methodology/approach: The study is an exploratory research with a qualitative approach. The main object is the halal supply chain practice of the fried duck restaurant which has become one of the favourite foods and is rapidly growing in Indonesia. Data was collected by semi-structured interviews with the supplier (poultry slaughterhouse), halal restaurant and customers. Moreover, observation of the operations and halal supply chain process was conducted. Finding: The findings of this study are in the formulation of halal supply chain models. The next finding is the dimensions formed based on the perspective of halal supply chain actors, namely suppliers (managers of poultry slaughterhouses), restaurant managers and consumers. The benefit of this study is to contribute to the halal food supply chain actors in the form of a supply chain practice model for halal food products and provide guidance for halal food businesses to improve the quality and consistency of halal supply chain practices in halal certified food products. Pages 440 to 451




Implementation of Islamic Entrepreneurial Culture in Islamic Boarding Schools

Irham Zakia, Tika Widiastutib, Ana Tony Roby Candra Yudhac, Ida Wijayantid, Denizar Abdurrahman Mi’raje, a,b,d,eFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, cUIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya, Indonesia, Email: airham-z@feb.unair.ac.id,  btika-w@feb.unair.ac.id,   canatoniroby@uinsby.ac.id,  dida.wijayanti-2018@pasca.unair.ac.id,   edenizar.a.m@feb.unair.ac.id

This research is conducted to understand the process of implementing an entrepreneurial culture in Islamic boarding schools — also known as pesantren — and explaining this implementation based on an Islamic perspective. This research used an interdisciplinary qualitative approach and a phenomenology strategy. The result of this research indicated that the implementation of entrepreneurial culture is performed well through the internalisation of entrepreneurial culture to the society of pesantren, followed by cultural actualisation in various fields of business which are managed by pesantren. Another result of this research is the entrepreneurial culture brings blessings as mentioned in surah Al-A’raf verse 96, which have fulfilled the elements to label pesantren as a blessing boarding school that increases the benefit and goodness for humans and creates an Islamic culture circle of entrepreneurship. Furthermore, it can conclude the unity of Islamic entrepreneurial culture, namely ‘aqidah, shariah, akhlaq, culture entrepreneurship, SMEs, and Islamic welfare. Pages 452 to 469




A Comparative Analysis of the Productivity of Islamic Banking in Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam during the period 2012–2017

Lina Nugraha Rania, Puji Sucia Sukmaningrumb, Marhanum Che Mohd Sallehc, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, cDepartment of Economics and Management Sciences, International Islamic University Malaysia, Email: alinanugraha@feb.unair.ac.id,  bpuji.sucia@feb.unair.ac.id,  cmarhanum@iium.edu.my

The development of Islamic banks has occurred very rapidly in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), such as Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam. The comparison among the three countries is very important, as are the operational considerations and consideration of State institutions. Efficiency and productivity are two of the performance indicators of banking. A comparison of the productivity of the banking between these countries would be helpful to identify the successes and failures of the policy bank. The method used in this study is the Malmquist Index. The Malmquist Index is an index used to compare bilateral production technology of the two elements of the economy. In this case, the index consists of several results, including efficiency change, technological change, pure efficiency change, economic change and the scale of the TFP change. The Malmquist Index is a measure of TFP changes from time to time and describes the company's performance during a certain period. The stages of development in this research comprised the collection of data from the Syariah banks in Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei Darussalam, during the period of 2012–2017 and processing the data using the method of the Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI). Pages 470 to 491




Effect of Price and Non-Price Initiatives Promotion towards Healthy Food Selection

Masmira Kurniawatia*, Tanti Handrianab, Indrianawati Usmanc, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a*masmira-k@feb.unair.ac.id

It is the task of marketers to pay attention to the welfare of their consumers. Unfortunately, today's consumer prefers fast food that does not have a balanced nutritional content. As a result, many Indonesians today are overweight. Marketers can influence this purchasing pattern through promotional activities so that consumers will prefer healthy food. Marketers can use various promotional methods to influence consumer purchasing decisions. This study uses priming, price discounts, and behavioural rewards. Utilising an experimental method, this study uses 240 participants. An ANOVA test is used to analyse the data. The analysis shows that consumers would prefer to buy healthy food products provided with a price discount compared to a behavioural reward; there are differences in the consumer response exposed to an ad with text that indicates priming compared to consumers who do not receive priming; and consumers will prefer to buy healthy food after seeing posters containing price promotions compared to priming posters. Pages 492 to 507




Inversed Illiquidity and Corporate Investment on the Indonesian Stock Exchange’s Kompas 100 Index

Muhammad Madyana, Made Gitanadya Ayu Aryanib*, Mohammad Triyo Anggonoc, Novian Abdi Firdausid, a,b,c,dFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: b*made.gitanadya.ayu.a@feb.unair.ac.id

Investors will respond to high investment by increasing trading volume, while firms will also boost this growth with their capital spending as a form of investment. Through inversing illiquidity, we can find another measurement viewpoint on the stock liquidity while also assessing the impact of corporate investments. This paper investigated empirical evidence on the Kompas 100 Index, which consisted of one hundred of the most liquid stocks in the Indonesian Stock Market. The result showed that corporate investment has a negative relationship to stock liquidity, caused by the increasing leverage to fund the investment. Investors viewed this as an increasing risk and reacted negatively. Pages 508 to 520




An Effort to Mitigate Deviant Behaviour in the Workplace: Does Justice Matter?

Nidya Ayu Arinaa*, Aldila Dwi Jayantib, Praptini Yuliantic, Luky Bagas Prakosod, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, dPostgraduate School, Universitas Airlangga Indonesia, Email: a*anidya.arina@feb.unair.ac.id

A salesperson is required to interact with internal companies and external parties. In this case, the customer. Several research studies rank salespersons among the most unethical professional jobs. This study is carried out on 312 salespersons through online surveys. The research found that the injustices felt by the salesperson are proven to significantly influence their deviant work behaviour. Furthermore, the existence of moral disengagement in the salesperson can also mediate the influence of organisational injustice on the deviant work of the behaviour, partially. Pages 521 to 537




The ‘Holier-Than-Thou’ Perception Bias of Business Workers and Business Students in Indonesia

Niluh Putu Dian Rosalina Handayani Narsaa*, Kadek Trisna Dwiyantib, I Made Narsac, a,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, bDepartment of Accounting, Universitas Pendidikan Nasional, Indonesia, Email: a*niluh.narsa@feb.unair.ac.id

The perception bias of ‘holier-than-thou’ will lead individuals to perceive themselves as more ethical than other individuals when faced with ethical issues. In the world of business practice, this bias is dangerous because it leads to the encouragement of an unethical organisational culture. This study aims to test if a holier-than-thou perception bias arises using whistleblowing scenarios and earnings management scenarios. The respondents are graduates of the economics faculty who have worked, as well as economics faculty students who are in college. The results show that, overall, perception bias arises. Interestingly, it was found that a holier-than-thou perception bias is more prevalent in females and those who have worked, especially in the whistleblowing scenario. This research has succeeded in providing empirical evidence to suggest that a holier-than-thou perception bias is especially likely to occur in companies that often experience ethical issues. Pages 538 to 555




Self Control, Perceived Opportunity, Knowledge and Attitude as Predictors of Plagiarism by Undergraduate Students

Praptini Yuliantia*, Ida Bagus Adi Permanab, Pramesti Pradna Paramitac, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a*praptini-y@feb.unair.ac.id

This study investigated plagiarism among Indonesian undergraduate students and examined whether self-control, knowledge of plagiarism, attitude towards plagiarism and perceived opportunity predict students' plagiarism. The sample consisted of 420 undergraduate students from a state university in Surabaya, Indonesia. The students completed questionnaires which collected information on demographics, plagiarism, self-control, knowledge of plagiarism, attitude towards plagiarism, and perceived opportunity. The results indicated that male students have a significantly higher self-reported plagiarism rate than female students. The mean of self-reported plagiarism varied across faculties and increased along with the length of study in the university. The students' self-reported plagiarism was predicted by a positive attitude towards plagiarism, limited knowledge of plagiarism, and low self-control. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research and university policies on plagiarism. Pages 556 to 571



The Application of Creative Problem-Solving Models for Improving Activities and Learning Outcomes of Land Measurement Techniques

Rijal Abdullaha, aCivil Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Negeri Padang, Email: arijal_a@ft.unp.ac.id

The number of Class X students of SMK Negeri I Al-Mubarkeya, Aceh Besar who did not reach the Minimum Completeness Criteria (MCC) score in the last three years has encouraged researchers to conduct this research. The aim was to reveal the increase of learning activities and learning outcomes of Land Measurement Techniques for Class X students of SMK Negeri I Al-Mubarkeya, Aceh Besar with the Creative Problem-Solving Learning Model. This study was designed as a Classroom Action Research, conducted in Class X of SMK Negeri I Al-Mubarkeya, Aceh Besar, with a total of 24 students. The observation sheet instruments of student learning activities have been validated by experts and the evaluation sheets have met the requirements of validity, power difference and level of difficulty. The results showed that in two cycles of research, the implementation of the the Creative Problem-Solving Learning Model could increase learning activities from 75% to 81% and improve learning outcomes from an average of 60.69% to 84.48%. Pages 572 to 584  

Personality Traits and Level of Anxiety of School Administrators at Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College

Abdulhalim H. Jauharia, aTawi-Taw Regional Agricultural College, Bongao, Tawi-Tawi, Philippines, Email: ajjau153@gmail.com

School administrators experience trauma during and after service. The stress hypothesis suggests that trauma exposure involves such effects that are widespread and long-lasting. The author pursued this study to know what personality traits dominate among administrators in Tawi-Tawi Regional Agricultural College. It was also essential to know the anxiety level that they had which could significantly affect their performance. Further, this study aimed to determine the significant relationship between school administrators’ personality traits and their level of anxiety. The quantitative research design was used in this study. Findings were (a) the personality traits of the school administrators regarding openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism were frequently manifested; (b) the level of anxiety of the school administrators was mildly experienced, and (c) there was a weak (positive) linear relationship between school administrators’ personality traits and anxiety. The study concluded that the stressors in the everyday operations, matters and relationships with non-administrator and thinking about the possibility of being abused are the major stressors leading the school administrators to high anxiety. It was recommended that the school administrators should know better the value of knowing their personality traits and anxiety level needed for the comprehensive delivery of their functions in the call of service.  Pages 585 to 597

The Voice of African-American Women: Feminist Voice in Maya Angelou's Selected Poems

Ali Kareem Sameera*, Hasan Hadi Alib, a,bMinistry of Education in Iraq, Email: a*alialjumaili92@gmail.com

Being an African-American female poet, dramatist, novelist and critic, Maya Angelou made use of her poetry and literary writing as a means to direct her own feeling toward the racial secularism and injustice of the American society. In addition, she displayed the strength aspects of black women in resisting these stereotypes institutions and supporting their self-confidence and dignity. Thus, many critics and writers indicated that Angelou's poems concentrate on her own self-image and regarded her works as a reflection of the African-American womanhood. Therefore, this paper aims to examine Angelou's poems that apparently mirror the female voice and identity in Woman Work, Phenomenal Woman, Still I Rise and Equality. In each of these poems, the poet used a persona to speak out about the personal experience of the poet with racism and oppression against black women. The feminist theory was adopted to analyse the feminist voice in Angelou’s selected poems. The findings indicated that specific facts and literary devices of Angelou's utilisation of feminist inefficacy and silence were effective to stand against the racial discrimination and state of marginalisation. Thus, this paper implies that the reader can recognise Angelou's effort in emerging her own voice to speak about certain strategies used by the black women to sustain their self-respect, self-consciousness and identity. Pages 598 to 616

Dispute Resolution in the Restructuring of Defaulted Sukuk: An Empirical Investigation in Malaysia

Sulistya Rusgiantoa, Ahmad Rizki Sridadib*, Indira Retno Aryatiec, Nursilah Ahmadd, a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, cFaculty of Law, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, dFaculty of Economics and Muamalat, Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia, Email:  b*ahmad-r-s@feb.unair.ac.id

The objective of the study is to empirically investigate the dispute resolution in the restructuring of defaulted corporate sukuk in Malaysia. Under Malaysia law system, the disputing parties may resolve their business dispute through the court or various Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) mechanisms. ADR includes negotiation, mediation and arbitration mechanisms. The finding suggests that the disputing parties may utilise a combination of dispute resolution mechanisms to restructure the defaulted sukuk. The negotiation tends to be used as the first option, followed by the court trial or mediation. The finding implies that the disputing parties should consider any possible dispute resolution method under the jurisdiction where a sukuk is structured to resolve the defaulted sukuk. Pages 617 to 635

The Development of Sovereign Sukuk in Indonesia

Nisful Lailaa*, Muslich Anshorib, a,bGraduate School of Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia a,bFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a*nisful.laila@feb.unair.ac.id

The purposes of this study are to assess the problems faced by the Indonesian Government in developing sovereign sukuk; to provide alternative solutions and to produce a draft strategy to be applied; and to determine what are the determinants in developing sovereign sukuk. The method used is an Analytic Network Process (ANP), which has advantages to measure and synthesise a number of factors in hierarchy or network. The initial phase of this study is to conduct a literature survey and in-depth interviews with stakeholders, including academicians, practitioners, regulators, and associations, to fully understand the problem. This is followed by creating an ANP model, filling questionnaires by expert respondents, data processing by ANP super decision software, and then performing a results analysis. We conclude that the three most important problems to be solved are related to government commitment (15.5 per cent), adequate transaction infrastructure (10.3 per cent), and adequacy of regulation (9.6 per cent). The three most important solutions that should be the attention of policy makers are the importance of increasing government commitment (12.8 per cent), easiness of transaction (11.1 per cent), and regulatory revision (10.9 per cent). The three most important strategies that need to be implemented soon are making the roadmap of Islamic financial development, in addition to providing infrastructure by the government (11.2 per cent), the importance of supervision in regulatory implementation (11.1 per cent), and the importance of optimising the government’s role in asset identification and tax incentive and competitive sukuk pricing in sovereign sukuk trade (8.6 per cent). Pages 636 to 648

A Study of Effectiveness of Vocational Training Programs for Taiwan’s Indigenous people

Chang, Yu-Yuna, Chen, Fei-Chuanb, aDoctoral student, Department of Technology and Vocational Education, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology, bAssociate Professor, Department of Technological and Vocational Education, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology,

The purpose of this study is to explore the effectiveness of the vocational training programs for employment on Taiwan's Indigenous people. A sample of 317 students from 2017 and 2018 batches of vocational training programs for unemployed people in Hualien County was selected for this study. The secondary data analysis method was adopted through statistical software SPSS 22. The data was made available by the Ministry of Labor Vocational Training Management System Database (TIMS). The findings include that age and education level of the Indigenous trainee(s) adversely affect employment performance, indicating that the lower the age and the lower the education level, the higher the employment effect. The trainees’ learning satisfaction however does not affect the employment outcome. The study also found that the objective of the Indigenous people in participating the vocational training was mainly employment. For this reason, their recognition and satisfaction for these vocational training programs was found extremely high. The employment rate after training was also 67.2% but their employment and vocational training correlation was a low on grounds of curriculum attributes. The learning effectiveness of vocational training varies according to gender and it was evident that the effectiveness was higher in women than men. This study recommends strengthening the identification mechanism of employment effectiveness and suggests seeking the cooperation and assistance of the local industry to strengthen vocational training. Pages 649 to 664

Global Trading of Electronic Component in Indonesia Manufacturing Industry

Dyah Wulan Saria, Wenny Restikasarib, Tri Haryantoc, a,b,c,Faculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: adyah-wulansari@feb.unair.ac.id, bwenny.restikasari-2018@feb.unair.ac.id, csoemantri2@yahoo.com

This paper deals with firm level data of Indonesian electrical and electronics industries in determining firm’s production, especially among export intensity and component trade integration. In the full sample, the result demonstrates that component trade integration is a significant determinant on productivity while export intensity is not. In ordinary trader sub-sample, export intensity is a significant determinant of firm’s production, whereas in global trader sub-sample export intensity is not. The policy implications of these results might not support totally for policies promoting export in Indonesian electrical and electronics industries. Export policies within the context of global trade and production value chains should be conducted with caution. Pages 665 to 677

The Effect of TAM in an Online Shopping Context

Ratri Amelia Aisyaha, Muhammad Madyanb, Gigih Prihantonoc, a,b,cFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: a*ratri.aisyah@feb.unair.ac.id

Technology facilitates and enables consumers to carry out various kinds of activities that have never been conducted. Technology transforms human activities from offline to online transactions. The online store platform provides a variety of features which makes it easier for consumers to purchase a product. Therefore, it triggers consumers to perceive that the technology is useful and easy to use. These perceptions have an impact on the attitude towards online shopping and it influences consumers’ intentions to purchase online. This study uses quantitative methods and distributes questionnaires. The questionnaires are obtained from 99 respondents. The respondents are students in Airlangga University, Indonesia. The Structural Equation Modelling – Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) method is applied. The results show that a perceived ease of use has no effect on the attitude towards online shopping; perceived ease of use has a positive effect on perceived usefulness; perceived usefulness has a positive effect on the attitude towards online shopping; and attitude towards online shopping has a positive effect on the intention to shop online. Pages 678 to 690

Career Development and Licence Guidance for Culinary Students

Chen-Den Wua, Wei-Te Liub, a,bGraduate School of Technological and Vocational Education, YunTech University, Taiwan, Email: ad10643005@yuntech.edu.twbliuwt@yuntech.edu.tw

This study investigated the ego identity, career development and learning effectiveness of vocational culinary students, in the Taiwanese University of Science and Technology. The questionnaires were collected and scored using the Likert 5-point scale. The participants included 30 students in their C-level technician certification. The results were summarized as follows: 1. The participants’ background was diverse, and the ratio of male to female was equivalent. 2. Participants who were hired because of their licence account for 90% (27 people) of the group. 3. Most students decided to attend school due to personal intentions. 4. Their evaluation of the training course was high. 5. Taiwanese students were more likely to explore information than foreign students. Further, as to individual learning and inner strengths, international students measured higher than the Taiwanese. The researchers suggest the following: 1. Establish a learning portfolio, and record the formative assessment of each unit in the process to promote learning outcomes. 2. Found the remedial teaching system to provide cross-disciplinary learning and offer foreign students guidance. 3. Set up mentoring and through the seniors’ experience, properly arrange the apprenticeship system. 4. Introduce cooperative learning so that the group cooperates and completes tasks to enhance their learning motivation. 5. MOOCs course introduction: Effective transformation and retention of the training courses, to broaden the benefits of operating long-distance. Several recommendations were proposed in this study. Pages 691 to 704

6C Levels among Trainee Teachers upon the Implementation of NPDL in a Teacher Training Institute

Ellyza Karima*, Nor’Azah Ahmad Safranb, Noor Haslinda Shuibc, Haliza Hamzahd, Norhayati Hashim dan Mohd Paris Sallehe, a,b,c,d,eIPG Kampus Pendidikan Teknik, Bandar Enstek, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia,

This study aims to measure the six global competencies (6Cs) among trainee teachers. It follows the implementation of the New Pedagogies for Deep Learning (NPDL), in a Malaysian Teacher Training Institute. NPDL is a commitment to building a learning relationship between and among students, lecturers and the community, based on current learning development. Learning partnership is emphasised throughout the implementation. NPDL consists of three main areas, namely competency, learning design and learning environment. It focuses on designing and developing the pedagogical capacity that encourages students to develop deep learning competencies: citizenship, character, communication, creativity, collaboration and critical thinking. The standard 6Cs setting is to bridge the gap of current learning development. Teacher-centred approaches are widely practised, with one-way communication and students as mere listeners; hence students become passive. Traditional pedagogical and teacher teaching styles affect students’ interest in teaching and learning. Thus, NPDL was introduced as one of the latest pedagogical-centred capacities, which enhances student-centred learning as well as pedagogical aspects both across the curriculum and between disciplines. In this study data was analysed from an online questionnaire of 84 respondents at a Teacher Training Institute, from Semester 3, 5 and 7, among the courses in Science, Mathematics, RBT and TESL. The overall mean of the 6Cs is (M = 3.41; SD = 0.74), where, collaboration is (M = 3.61; SD = 0.84), citizenship (M = 3.51; SD = 0.73), critical thinking (M = 3.36; SD = 0.83), character (M = 3.35; SD = 0.80), creativity (M = 3.31; SD = 0.84) and communication (M = 3.29; SD = 0.80). The norm comparison shows that collaboration, citizenship, critical thinking and character are above the norm, while creativity and communication are below the norm. This indicates that NPDL has successfully increased four out of six global competencies of 6Cs for trainee teachers, while the other two should be given attention for future enhancement. Pages 705 to 727

Validity of the Online Learning Teaching Materials Model on the Innovation Course of Technology and Vocational Education

Sukardia, M Giatmanb, Syaiful Haqc, a,b,cFakultas Teknik, Universitas Negeri Padang, Indonesia, Email: asukardiunp@gmail.combgiatman@ft.unp.ac.idcsyaifulhaq9206@gmail.com

As the development of Indonesian education is slower than the development of technology, there is a need for acceleration in Indonesian education. Education and technology must be combined in order to create a good balance. Thus, this provides the rationale for introduction of Problem Based Learning via network (online) medium in the Vocational Technology Education (PTK) setting.  This research & development 4-D model (define, design, develop, disseminate) was conducted at PTK program in Universitas Negeri Padang. The instrument validity was validated by three experts (expert judgment) with the results of the validity of Aiken's V 0.929 and ICC reliability 0.811. The teaching material produced is valid, so it is appropriate to be used for learning in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0. Overall study findings have provided a good understanding regarding the validity of online learning teaching material models on the innovation course of technology and vocational education which can further be used in the upcoming studies. Pages 728 to 738

Reducing Gender Wage Inequality in Indonesia

Ahmad Rizki Sridadia, Gigih Prihantonob, a,bFaculty Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: aahmad-r-s@feb.unair.ac.id, bgigih.pri@feb.unair.ac.id

Education is an indicator of advanced development, as education produces high quality human resources. However, the existence of a gender gap in society causes low participation of women in education compared to men. This phenomenon happens due to various factors such as government policy, socio-economic, and culture. As such, this study aims to estimate the rate of return of gender-based school in Indonesia using Mincer earnings function. This study uses database Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS) 4 and 5. The two-step Heckman model of ordinary least square (OLS) is used for data analysis. The findings of this study are as follows. First, return to schooling is higher for males than females, for both service and manufacturing industries. Second, years of schooling, years of schooling interaction with the manufacturing industry, years of schooling interaction with in service industry, the squared years of schooling interaction with the manufacturing industry, the squared years of schooling interaction with the service industry, gender interaction with the service industry, gender interaction with the manufacturing industry and urban/rural location are significantly influenced by returning to schooling. While, squared years of schooling is not significantly influenced by returning to schooling. Pages 739 to 755

Islamic Leadership and Internal Marketing: Evidence from Islamic Banking

Ririn Tri Ratnasaria, aFaculty of Economics and Business, Universitas Airlangga, Indonesia, Email: aririnsari@feb.unair.ac.id

This study aims to determine the effect of Islamic leadership and internal marketing on employee performance, employee performance on employee welfare, Islamic leadership and internal marketing on employee welfare, the dominant influence on employee welfare, the appropriateness of the application of internal marketing and Islamic leadership based on Islamic law. The sample in this study was 107 permanent employees who carried out marketing activities and worked at Islamic Banks (Bank Muamalat and Bank Syariah Mandiri) for a minimum of five years, namely the period of 2015 to 2019 in East Java, Indonesia. The analysis technique used the Partial Least Square method. The results of this study indicate that internal marketing and Islamic leadership influence employee performance. Employee performance affects employee welfare. Internal marketing has no effect on employee welfare at Islamic banks. Islamic leadership has a significant positive effect on employee welfare at Islamic Banks. Pages 756 to 773

An Empirical Investigation on Factors Influencing upon Investment Decision of Women Entrepreneurs

aBatool Muhmmad Hussain, bUmair Baig, cSyed Babar Ali,  dSaba Zehra, aMuhmmad Ali Jinnah University, Karachi, Pakistan, bBenazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Karachi, Pakistan, cBarrett Hodgson University, Karachi, Pakistan, dFederal Urdu University of Arts, Sciences & Technology, Karachi, Pakistan, Email: abatoolhuzaifah@gmail.com

The paper comprehends various factors that influence behaviour of women entrepreneur’s investment decisions, who feels reluctant while allocating their fund to maintain sustainability due to uncertainty. A well-structured survey questionnaire was sent to accumulate data. We approached 200 potential respondents but only 120 responses were received that we employed using PLS-SEM to empirically test the measurement and structural model of the designed conceptual model in the study. The study revealed that woman entrepreneurs are influenced by social factors, behavioural factors and their distinct investment attitudes for available investment options especially at times of uncertainty. Interestingly, it was found that they are risk averse, sometimes short of government incentives and face political instability that ultimately prevent them from sound investment activity. The findings of the study brought out a better in-depth knowledge regarding the psychology of women entrepreneurs as an investor and would be helpful to the financial consultant to develop productive capital investment plans for the women entrepreneurs. The study would be in the best interest of policymakers in the corporate world and contemporary scholars to comprehend the underlying factors that affect the investment decision of women entrepreneurs, especially at the uncertain circumstances. Finally, it will contribute to provide assistance to women entrepreneurs in understanding and mitigating their reluctances whilst taking decision for investment, enabling them to consider trade-off between the return and risk. Pages 774 to 792   

What matters the most? Traditional or Modern Measure of Performance in the context of Operating and Financial Leverage

Muhammad Adil1, Dr. Adnan Ahmad2, Kainaat3, Robina4, Salman Zeb5, Dr. Muhammad Ilyas6, 1MS Scholar, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, 2Associate Professor, IBL, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 3,4,5PhD Scholar, IBL, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan, 6Lecturer IBL, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan,

Email: 1muhammadaadil1987@gmail.com, 2adnankhattak@awkum.edu.pk, 3kainaatkhanemail@gmail.com, 4robinakhan2098@gmail.com, 5salmanzaib321@gmail.com, 6milyas_85@awkum.edu.pk

Financial leverage and operating leverage are important factors for any firm to generate income and to raise funds for further expansion. Operating leverage is a measure that shows the degree to which a firm can raise operating profit by increasing revenue while financial leverage is the use of debts to acquire additional assets or funds. Two types of measures can be used to represent the performance of a firm; traditional measure such as ROA, ROE, and ROI etc. and modern measures such as economic value added, and market value added. Previous studies investigate the impact of operating and financial leverage on firm's performance but using the traditional measure of performance i.e., Return on Assets and Return on Equity. This study differs from the traditional techniques to a recent measure of performance which is a more modern and sophisticated performance measure referred to as modern measure of performance and is called economic value added. The study uses sample from the non-financial firms form Pakistan Stock Exchange for the period 2014 to 2020. We download data from the relevant websites of firms, Pakistan Stock Exchange, and State Bank of Pakistan for the sample firms and sample period. The data is secondary and panel in nature. Using panel data techniques for analysis, the study finds that operating and financial leverage are significantly but negatively affecting traditional measure of performance while operating leverage is having a non-significant and negative relation with modern measure of performance (EVA). Moreover, financial leverage is negatively associate with EVA and this association is statistically significant. In terms of magnitude of the coefficients (betas), leverage effect is more on modern measure of performance i.e. economic value added. Pages 793 to 806
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